Copyrl^^T by Jorrene Love Ort (2024)

Copyrl^^t by jorrene Love Ort



Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Eeguireaients for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University



The Ohio State University 1955

Approved by:

Adviser/J Department of Education, ACimOV/XEDGIÆEOTS

One can never pay in gratitude; one can only pay "in M n d " somevdiero else in life*

— Anne llorrow Lindberg from: Listen I The % n d

SomeiNhere else in life this author hopes that she, too, may someday repay "in kind" those "svho so generously shared in the be­ coming process of this creative fragment.

To her adviser. Dr. Laura Zirbes, the author is indebted for an untold bequest of greater vision, a great mrrath of personal faith and understanding, and the professional stimulation of being creatively constructive while raising the sights*

To the other members of her committee. Dr. Earl Anderson, Dr. Manuel Barkan, and Dr. William IhBride, the author is grateful for their many helpful suggestions and their friendly professional inspiration.

To those other members of the department of education at Tho Ohio State University— and particularly to the staff of the University School— the author v/ishes to express her sincere appre­ ciation.

To children— be they here or half a vrorld aivay— the author's deepest appreciations are warmly expressed in the happy memories these fondly evoke.

To her husband, Vergil Kenneth Ort, the author has naught to extend but her hand and a wish that together they might continue this vjonderful hand-in-hand journey of creative living and learning that the graduate years have but commenced.

Lorrene Love Ort



I THE YEAST OF CREATIVE EXPRESSION...... 1 Statement of the Problem...... 1 Coming at TAiat Is Meant by the Creative Potential...... 2 Catalyzers that Help in Developing the Creative Potential in Children...... 7 Challenge...... 7 Spontaneity ...... 9 Inspiration...... 12 The Influence of Objective Contacts vdth Greatness ...... 14 Availability and Flexibility ...... 18 Concern for Individuality as Well as Groupness . 23 Cooperation and L o v e ...... 27

II THE PSYCHOLOGICAL SETTING FOR THE CREATIVE ACT. . . 39 Inspiring so that Children May Aspire...... 44 Capitalizing on the Inter-Related Aspect of the Arts...... 54 Of lAisic, Poetry, Painting and P o t s ...... 56 Relating VJhimsy and Whitchery...... 59 A-grovdng and A-building...... 60 About Mind, Motion, and Music ...... 63 Seizing Creative Moments, ...... 64 Recognizing the Value of Drama...... 65 Recognizing the Value of Seasonal Phenomena • 66 Stimulating Through the Freshness of New Materials...... 70

III EXPLORING CHANNEIB TO CREATIVE EXPRESSION...... 84 Reviewing Concepts Favorable for Integrative Learning in the Elementary School...... 84 Discovering How Those Channels Can Be Opened, Expanded, and Related...... 96 Relating Creativity and Growth...... 96 Some Aspects of Curriculum...... 98 Creativity— An Integral Part of the Whole . . 99 Teacher Resiliency...... 100 Child as Planner...... 101 A School Family...... 102 Space for Growth...... 104 The Teacher's Part...... 105 The Child's Part...... 107 The Program's Part...... 109

- m - TABLE OF co*kTEtJTS (cont,)


IV IKEETÎŒSSES, BLOCKINGS, AND FRICTIONS THAI lîAKE CREATIVITY MISS...... 114 Roviomng Concepts Unfavorable to Integrative Learning in the Elementary School...... 114 Concepts Postered by Some Teachers ...... 114 Concepts Postered by Some Administrators . . 126 Concepts Fostered by Some Curricula. .... 152 Concepts Fostered by Some Parents...... 133 Concepts Fostered by Some Aspects of the Culture...... 136 Stereotyping— A Blocking Agent • • • • .... 137 The Blocking of "Too-lhohness"— A Smothering. . 142

V CREATIVE ACTION— A VEHICLE FOR SALVAGING VALUES FROM OBSTACLES...... 154 The Chain Reaction of Positiveness...... 154 Example and Precept— Agents for Salvaging Values...... 150 The Exhileration of Creative Struggle— Grovang a New Self Dimension...... 162 Creating Interest in Now Possibilities and In So Doing Relinquishing the Grip on Those Ideas which Have Posed a Hurdle...... 167 Using Resiliency and Understanding to Meet Obstacles Rather than Resistancy and Resentment...... 170 Reducing the Enormity of Obstacles by a Realistic and Rational Aocoptance...... 174

VI RECOGNIZING S0IÆ AREAS OF EXPRESSION THAT GIVE RECURRENCE TO CERTAIN CREATIVE OPPORTUNITIES . . . 191 A Repertoire of Beauty in Various Art Forms . . 191 Providing Certain Situations...... 195 A Cross-Grade Experience with Creativity. . . . 216

VII POSSIBLE CONTRIBUTION^ OF THIS STUDY FOR CHILDHOOD EDUCATION...... 267 Summary...... 267 Possible Contributions to Childhood Education • 269





Going Noma In V/inter (Age 8)...... 11

Mother Mouse (Age 7)«...... 14

The Nutcracker I&roh (Age ? ) • ...... 16

Dog (Age 7 ) ...... 26

Red Bain (Age 8 ) ...... 29

Simmertime (Age 7)...... 33

Seaweed (Age 7)...... 35

Monotone Block Print (Age 6)...... 36

Tri-Color Block Print (Age 8) ...... 37

Monotone Block Print (Age 1 1 ) ...... 38

Autumn Trees (Age 8)...... 57

Crane (Age 7 ) ...... 61

A Six-Year-Old Sav/a Out a Bird House...... 80

Creative Play at the Pre-School Level ...... 81

The Drummer...... 82

A Four-Year-Old Paints...... 83

Design (Age 4)...... 112

People (Age 4)...... 112

Playing Outside in VÛnter (Age 5 ) ...... 113

The Big Snow (Age 5 ) , ...... 113

Tho Very Old House (Age 6 ) ...... 146

Ifysolf (Age 6)...... 147



Hearts and Flowers (Ago 6 ) ...... 148

Crane and Riveters (Ago7 ) . . * ...... 148

Playground (Age 7)...... 149

Clowns (Age 7)...... 149

Happy Clown (Age 7 ) ...... 150

Design For I S y Daddy (Age 7),...... « ...... 151

Rabbit On a Hill (Age ?)...... 151

Funny Glovm (Age 7 )...... 1S2

Ballet Dancers (Ago 8 ) ...... 153

Design (Ago 8 ) ...... 153

The Room Before...... 174

The Room After...... 177

SnoTiAiy Night (Ago 9)...... 181 m i d Horse (Ago 9)...... 181

High Street (Age 9 ) . . , ...... 182

Down The Hill (Age 9 ) ...... 182

St. Stephen's Church (Ago 9 ) ...... 183

Boy Modeling (Ago 10)...... 184

Falling Leaves. (Age 10)...... 185

People (Age 10 )...... , ...... 186

Collage (Age 10 )...... 187

Oil Painting (Ago 1 1 ) ...... 188

Oil Painting (Age 1 1 ) ...... 189

- v-vi * LIST OP ILLOSTRATIONS (cont.)


Hfetor Color (Age 11)...... 190

A Sixth Grade Program,...... 199

Selections from "Buolceye Leaves” ...... 200-203

Pet of the l-fot Program* ...... 240

The ISouse Family At Breakfast...... 247 m o e (Ago 10)...... 248

Lfeking P r o p s ...... 249

Painting Scenery...... 250

Painting a Giraffe Head...... 261

Ifeking Silk-Screen Covers...... 252

An Older Child. Helps a Smaller O n e ...... 253

Learning about a Hew Process...... 253

Poster Making...... 254

Handling Lights...... 255

An "Angel" Dons His % n g s ...... 256

The "Dev/ Faiiy"...... 257

Kindergarten "Iiiishrooms"...... 258

Hansel, Gretel, and Vfltch...... 259 l%tchlng the Performance. . . . . 260

Bridal Attendants...... 261

The Wedding Ceremony. 262

A Boastful Bottom...... 263

Puck Transforming Bottom...... 264

- ■iVjii- - LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (oont.)


The I^3use Family...... 265

Pamlna, ÎÆonostatos, and Slaves...... 266

Bird...... 277

Prehistoric Animal (Age 10278

Space Travel (Age 11)...... 279

Brother and Sister Playing a Game (Age 10 )...... 280

Robin (Ago 8 ) ...... 281

Cowboy (Age 10)...... 282

Elephant (Age 9 ) , ...... 283

Rabbit (Ago 7)...... 284

Rabbits (Age 6 ) ...... 285

Elephant (Ago 9 ) ...... 286

Woven Rug (Age 8 ) ...... 287

Hon On A Nest (Age 6 ) ...... 288

Brass Dish (Ago 1 1 ) ...... 289

Papier-mache Grouping (Age 9)...... 290

Showcase (Age 9)...... 291

I/iou3o, Rabbit, Dog (Ago 7 ) ...... 292

Cut Paper Group (Age 9 ) , ...... 293

Game Board (Ago 11)...... 294

Canwl, Rider, and Bag (Ago 9 ) ...... 295

Pony (Ago 9)...... 296

- v3ü- CHAPIER I


To 8 0 8 the world in a grain of sand. And a heaven in a wild flower; Hold infinity in the palm of your hand. And eternity in an hour*

— William Blake from Auguries of Jnnocenoe

Statement of the Problem.

This is an investigation, projected among children in an elementary school, of that intangible and expanding force called creativity which, when quickened and stimulated by such assisting catalyzers as challenge, spontaneity, inspiration, and an objective touch of greatness— to name a few— seems to cause the human yeast to exert and extend itself into an upsurging commotion that finally be­ comes manifest in that unique way which is identifiable in its exter­ nal expression as being a true product of personal creativity— be it a painting, a pot, a filagree of poetry, a mathematical equation, a dance, a tonal structure in musical form...or whatever.

This study will involves reviewing pertinent literature, past and contemporary; using past and present personal observations; draw­ ing on sources of children’s creativity— using photographs of some children’s art work from an elementary school, describing some children’s reactions to creative situations, noting some of the com­ ments made by children during or concerning the creative process, and using other forms of children’s creative expression,

- 1 - This study will be limited primarily to creative experiences of children from kindergarten through the sixth grade, and, to pro­ tect the true identity of the children involved, fictitious names will be substituted for actual ones.

In this study concerning an intangibility such as the sparking of creativity in young children there are assumptions. To the extent of revieiving much of that ivhich is known and vnritten about in this area#..and to the extent of coupling what is in print with much personal observations and exploration in this field...the study is, and to that extent only, scientific, but the full proof— if such there may be— is not yet.

In addition to the data presented in the context, there are photographs of children’s art work and activities at the endcf each chapter. These have been grouped into seven categories: children’s block prints; children in the process of creating through various art media, paintings from the four-and-five-year-old kindergarten group; paintings from the six, seven, and eight-year-old groups; paintings from the nine, ten, and eleven-year-old groups; pictures related to activities involved in producing a ploy; and pictures of three dimen­ sional work from a mixed-age group of children.

Coming at Yftiat Is Ifeant by the Creative Potential

The creative potential is most often identified and recognized as it makes itself knovm through action involving a medium. Perhaps it is the ability one has to ask questions that leads one closer to the answer of the riddle of the becoming self— ?diether the question be asked externally of others, invmrdly of the objective self, or in some other fashion— as, for example, the hands seeking ans^vers from the clay, the voice and ear questing through tone, the intellect inquiring of science, the body moving to find an answer through . realms of space and time, and the eye penetrating for deeper and more insightful perceptions.

Here are some whose verbal lanterns throw a clearer, stronger light upon this subject. Barkan ascribes universality to the creative potential:

As we proooed to examine some of the oomponents of the creative process, it is important to recognize that oreativo experience is neither limited to professional artists nor to those who have an abundance of talent. Creativity is a universal human oharaoteristio,!

There is a many-sidedness to Fueloep-Millor’s conception of creativity:

A number of things seem to be essential to crea­ tivity, Creativity seems to be, in many cases, an unintentional and often unoonscious act. The creative idea comes in a "flash", It requires a certain lone­ liness and a desire to probe into yourself, Ibisanity or neurosis seem frequently to play a part in creativ­ ity, either as a precondition or a catylyst. The just- mentioned characteristics of oreativity do not, of course, present us with a possibility of "imitatio artisti." They can neither be acquired nor taught, nor can they be made a goal of social understanding. In view of these facts, our task could at best amount to an effort at creating a cultural climate that would enable the genuinely creative personality to dedicate

^Manuel Barkan, A Foundation for Art Education (New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1955), p, 118, his life fully to the pursuit of his creative activities a But above this attempt to create a climate, I see a possibility to appropriate some basic elements of crea­ tivity as they have been passed on to us from creative men. One of these lessons consists in the fact that an essential feature of creativity is the aimreness of ■wholeness, totality of life. To be truly creative ive must, as Leonardo da Vinci put it, have the universe in our minds and in our hands. In our •bime of specializa­ tion, it is therefore essential to stress an all-inclusive and integrated approach to life and reality. Mother important aspect of creativity is the striving to give in contrast with the impulse to possess....2

Rogers links great creativity and loneliness here: "One cannot

be creative without being out there and alone; the extent of -the

aloneness depends on the extent of -the creativity. The more creative 3 •the act, the more completely alone one is."

A poet echoes much the same thought here:

The soul’s superior Instants Occur to Her alone, îïhen friend and earth’s occasion Have infinite ■withdrawn.

Or she. Herself, ascended To too remote a height. For lower recognition Than Her Omnipotent.

This mortal abolition Is seldom, but as fair. As Apparition— subject To autocratic air.

^fenual Barkan and Rosa L. Mooney, editors. The Conference on Creativity: A Report to the Rockefeller Foundation"~(Col'unibu3, Ohio : The ( M o State Tlniversi^ty, 1953%rpT"26T 3 Ibid., p. 27, Bbemity'a disclosure To favorites» a few» Of the Colossal substance Of immortality*

— Emily Dickinson.

Zirbes gives flow to her conception of what the oomponents of creativity are: "...involvement in experience...tendency to project values individually and in relationship to form, to shape materials and ideas to serve his aspire, to envision, to realize, to evaluate and transform. All those are components of oreativeness.

Through the movements of the dance, Mooney sees a reshaping aspect of creativity:

Watching Tina dance, a multiple world is going on in those events. One of them is as she starts. Can you see her pause before she starts to dance. I moan how she is garnering her world in a kind of state of being. Then the creative act is a way of allowing to become what has been more or loss internalized. She shapes space and time and moves it all through.®

Ghiselin notes the confused emotions that precede the pouring out of the creative act itself:

Creation begins typically with a vague, even a con­ fused excitement, some sort of yearning, hunch, or other preverbal intimation of approaching or potential resolu­ tion. Stephen Spender's expression is exact: "a dim cloud of an idea which I feel must be condensed into a shower of words.” Alfred North 'Whitehead speaks

4 ^b]^*, p. 13. ^Ibid.. p. 16. of "the state of imaginative generali zati on." and there is much other testimony to the same effect.*

The transformation of experience as a major component of creativity is presented here by Lawence K. Frank:

Every individual child "who comes into the •world is made of an organism with the ■wisdom of body and this unoommitted oapaoity tjhich is uniquely human. He be­ comes transformed into a human being and a personality by learning to live in that cultural world and parti­ cipating in it by a daily act of creation. Each individual has to transform the geographical natural world and people into the meaningful patterns, putting meanings into them, the evaluations with cultural tradi­ tion. That is a creative act as I see it. That is the basic oroative act and out of that arises the primary anxiety of life: "Can I do it?"^

With the frugality of a few words Frank provokes croativi-by into motion: "The individual makes the internal external and the external internal. So, it is a circular process, and that is creative Q in my estimation."

Vïhat is it— this thing called creativity— this involvement of self’s creative potential— this human yeast? Same put a finger on it here.. .another there, but at least, it may be assumed, one aspect of it is that ■which is now happening to you, the reader— the inner peroeiver, for as you ■bum your eyes inward in search of those evolving ideas that will give birth to a formative ans^wer, you your-

g Brewster Ghiselin, The Creative Process: A Symposium (Berkeley and Los Angeles: TMversity of California Press, 1952), pp. 4-5. 7 Barkan and Mooney, op. cit., pp. 17-18. 8 Ibid., p. 18. soif are tmiquely involTod in this, the imperial riddle, the creative


Catalyzers that Help in Developing The Creative Potential in Children

Just as ■warmth is the catalyst tliat sets yeast into a bubbling, brewing and expanding commotion, so, too, are there catalyzers that

act upon the seeming inertia, the dormancy, of human yeast. Nor are

all catalyzers "out there" or external faotors as considered apart

from the individual, M a n himself is endowed vd-th "built in" catal­ ysts if he will but put these "genies" into action.


Hare is a nudging, prodding catalyst that goads the Individual

into extending himself beyond the complacency of an every-day self.

Sometimes challenge is an external agent, for some indl-riduals it is

a vital part of the self, and for many it tends to be either.

Several years ago a teacher stood on the doorstep of a now

and wonderful experience— one that had its setting on a pin-point

island in tho South Pacific, 3aoh morning as she greeted Samoan

students and teachers she did so with a "Good morning, lutita" or a

"Good morning, Matea"— or whatever the person’s name might be; to

the very young first graders, uriio as yet spoke no English, she

aooompanied eaoh child's name with the soft Samoan greeting, "Talofa

lava I" Prom one child, however, this brought no similar response of

groo’ting and no answering smile. Instead, as young Simi -walked past

the teacher his oountenanoe mirrored unhappiness, and his lips were 8 troubled "with incohérent mumblings* The teacher turned to m older student and asked, "Please tell me, vihat did I do to offend Simi?"

"Oh, Simll" she smiled understandingly, "îïhy, ho m a t s that you should*• ..should*.and hero she searched despairingly throu^ her verbal attic, "...should »u*u him!" and this she said with a forvaard thrust of her hand.

""U*u?" questioned the teacher shoving the consecutive oooo’a out in breathless puffs*

"’U*u," the student reaffirmed nudging the uncomprehending one forward with an emphatic push of invo strong hands. "You *u*u him* Say, 'Good morning, Simll' Then he 'u'u self and learn


The next morning the gauntlet— the challenge— the invigorating push— the "'u'u"— was flung down. "Good morning, Simi I "m s the greeting given* A smile and bow preceded a dignified, "Talofa lava, susugal"

"So?" mused the teacher, "Won't he accept the challenge?"

A few mornings later, however, as the teacher was concen­ trating on early morning work at her desk, she suddenly felt a soft finger tap her oheek. There stood Simi— barefoot and briefly clothed, but carrying with him the regal air of one who has donned the purple vestments of the elect. He gravely bowed, then said in clear, soft tones, "Good morning, teacher!"

The nudge without and the challenge within— vdiat prime movers are these! Barkan, himself an artful challenger, comments thusly on the individual’s ability to create challenges for himselfs

A child’s capacity to create now and challenging prob­ lems for himself is his most potent source of continuous growth and development# It imbues him with a zest for living and an eagerness to go forward to moot the now and exciting events in experience as it unfolds. Because creative oapaoity is solf-generating, it is fundamentally practical# It is the surest route to mature living#

"The call to rise" is Bnily Dickinson’s synonym here for

challenge t

TIÎ0 never know how high we are Till we are called to rises And then, if we are true to plan. Our statures touch the skies#

The heroism we recite Would be a daily thing. Did not ourselves the cubits warp For fear to be a king#

Zirbes considers challenge a factor for the nurturing of creativity: "Conditions: giving people a chance to be formative, giving them freedom to enter in, giving them a challenge so that they aspire, aspiring to become more than they are#"^^

Thus, in one instance, creativity may be stimulated and con­ ditioned by the energizing force of challenge, but again the creative self may respond to quite another agent,..say, spontaneity#


"I’ve got itl I’ve got itl" exclaimed Melinda'as she fairly

9 Barkan, op. oit#, pp# 195-196# 10 Barkan and Mooney, op# cit#, p# 19. 10 flew into tho arts area. Her cheeks ware flushed and her eyes glowed brightly.

"Got what?" someone asked.

"An idea— a wonderful, wonderful idea...for a picture, of course. Now don't bother me. I've got to get going right now."

She got her paint and brushes, thumb-tacked her piece of chip­ board to the wall, and then she worked with that absorption aid drive that does not countenance pause. Mich later she went to the teacher and sagged against her contentedly. "It's all used up," was her only comment.

"Bn? Is your paint used up?"

" idea. It's all used upt"

And it was. The painting was complete, catching in its warmth and rhythm the excitement, tho spontaneity, and the vigor that had compelled the child to seek an outlet quickly through which she could best express herself.

Such a "just-out-of-the-tube" freshness has a lustrous quality which makes the senses tingle on perceiving it. Of such spontaneity Dewey concerns himself here:

The spontaneous in art is complete absorption in sub­ ject matter that is fresh, the freshness of which holds and sustains emotion. Stalenoss of matter and obtrusion of calculation are the two enemies of spontaneity of expression. Reflection, even long and arduous reflection, may have been ooncemed in the generation of material. But an expression will, nevertheless, manifest spontaneity if that matter has been vitally taken up into a present experience.

^^John Dewey, Art as Experience (New York: Minton, Baloh & Company, 1934), p. 70* 11

Going Home in 1/lBLnter

Age 8

And Road quotes Montasseri concerning children's spontaneous expression;

There can be no 'graduated exercises in drawing', leading up to an artistic creation..*.That is our reason for not teaching drawing directly to the child. Wo prepare him indirectly, leaving him free to the mysterious and divine labour of producing things according to his own feelings. Thus drawing comes to satisfy a need for expression, as does language; and almost every idea may seek expression in drawing* The effort to perfect suoh expression is very similar to that which the child makes when he is spurred on to perfect his language in order to see his thoughts translated into reality. This effort is spontaneous; and the real drawing teacher is the inner life, vhioh of itself develops, attains refinement, and seeks irre- 12

ais"bibly to be born into ejcbemal existence in some empirical sense.

But there are times "whan spontaneity’s pilot light burns low and needs to be regenerated by the spark of inspiration.


Seven-year-old Anita, who was usually bubbling over with ideas, was experiencing a rare I-don’t-know-i/diat-to-do day, and she was feel­ ing frumpy on the inside and at odds with things on the outside. She kicked the table leg— not too hard, but enough to let her foot have the smug satisfaction of a "so there I"

After discussing a variety of things in which Anita might have a real interest and after meeting with no success, tho teacher took Anita to the arts office where lived a mouse family in a very

special cage. "Anita you may sit here at my desk, and, if you can be very quiet and very patient," the teacher encouraged as she opened the small cage door, "maybe one of the mice will come out and

sit in your handl"

Tflien next the teacher looked in, Anita was giggling over the antics of a little mouse perched on her finger. "He took a bath a minute ago!" she exclaimed, "Right here in ay hand, tool You should have seen himl If I were a mother mouse. I’d vrear a big apron and really give him a bath— ears, tool"

12 Herbert Read, Education Through Art (New York: Pantheon Books, 1946), p. 113. IS

During the entire related arts time Anita and the mouse family became thoroughly acquainted* "Anita, do you know the poem about mice?" asked the teacher as they put the last mousekin back in his nest*

"How does it go?" requested Anita*

"I think mice Are rather nice— Their tails are long. Their faces small. They haven’t any Chins at all." — Rose Fylemaa

"That’s a really good onel" and she laughed at the thought of

chinless mice*

"Goodbye now, Anita," smiled the teacher*

"’Byei" waved Anita, and she skipped down the hall chanting,

"I think mice are rather ni ce I"

The next day found Anita digging in the clay bin* "Is it

going to be a secret, 'Mita?" someone wanted to know*

"Huh-uh," the child responded as she dug for a bigger mud ball, "Mice I I’m going to make a mother mouse and two babies I Do

you know v&y? 'Cause ’I think mice are awfully nice!"

Inspiration had "set it". Anita had had the feel of it, the humor of mouse, the softness and smallness and snoopiness of mouse,

and now she v;as ezpres sing mouse in clay* 14

Mother Mouse

Age 7

Defwey says of inspirationt

The inspiration. • «is initial. In itself, at the out­ set, it is still inchoate. Inflamed inner material must find objective fuel upon vdiioh to feed. Through the interaction of the fuel with material already afire the refined and formed product comes into existence. The act of expression is not something Wiioh supervenes upon an inspiration already complete. It is the carrying forward to completion of an inspiration by means of the objective material of perception and imagery.

The Influence of Objective Contacts with Greatness

This energizer leaves sure inroads upon an individual’s creative potential. It was the enchantment of Shakespeare’s drama that influ-

13 Devrey, op. cit., p. 66. 15

©need young Ifendelssohn's creative genius to produce the exquisite ziusio of Mdsummer Might’s Dream» For another, it -was the matter of great books that influenced übraham Lincoln to aspire to become zero than a hewing, harrowing frontiersman. Of such a literary influence and liberation the poet speaks here:

He ate and drank the precious vrords. His spirit grew robust; He knew no more that he was poor* Nor that his frame was dust. Ho danced along tho dingy days. And this bequest of v/ings Was but a book. What liberty A loosened spirit brings I — Emily Dickinson

Six-year-old Charlotte vdio had spent the previous year in

Italy was greatly influenced by that country's art treasures. Her paintings often contained mountain-top oastles, magnificent foun­ tains, or a remembranoe of a fine piece of sculpture.

The influence that one day stimulated seven-year-old Nina vias a musical one. One December morning Nina came singing md dancing into the arts area, and almost immediately she commenced working with paints and brush, Vûiil© she worked, a persistent little tune kept teasing the paint brush on: 16

A later glimpse over the o hi Id's shoulder told the story— two brightly painted nutcracker men separated by a Christmas tree were listening to the twinlcling rhythm of Tchaikovsky's spirited little march» To give the effect of rhythm Hina had allowed tie brush to plop down a blob of paint as the rhythm pushed itself out onto the paper, and these rhythmic blobs had created a design of rhythm all around and through the painting.

é â

The Nutcracker March

Age 7

"It's a nutcracker man," she explained, "Have you see M s s

Tolbert's Nutcracker Man? We did," she hurried on vdthout waiting for an answer, "and she played all the music about it, too. It's 17 called the Hutoracker Suite. That means,” she added tactfully, "that it*s a group of little pieces all put together. Mmmnmml I jast loved it.”

Of such influence Barkan T/tdtost

Every great -work of art needs to he perceived and internalized in order to he appreciated. Appreciation is an active process in terms of the symbolic and structural meanings of the -work of art vdiioh the adult and child can recognize and relate to themselves. Appreciation is outgoing, like expression, and the in­ dividual derives as deep satisfaction from one as he does the other. Moreover, one stimulates, encourages, and feeds the other.

Ruth Strickland writes knowingly of the influence of great literature on children here*

Often a poem or a story does something special for a child; it lifts his sights, helps him to understand himself or his experiences, or enriches his mind and soul with new values and aspirations. Such an experi­ ence, as Tennyson said in his poem, "Ulysses," takes the child to a nevf a.chway through which gleams for him an untraveled world whose margin fades forever and for­ ever as he moves. It opens up a world that lures him on, that does for him what Elizabeth Gray Vining did for the Crown Prince of Japan— opened windows on a T/ider world, wider in time, space, insights, and values. Ex­ periences which load a child beyond himself help him find a star to which to hitch his wagon, help him to see life as having values that transcend material ones— these are creative experiences.^®

Of the quality of such an influence Walter de la Mare wrote*

14 Barkan, op. cit., p. 186. 15 Ruth G. Strickland, "Creative Activities in the language Arts in the Elementary School," Elementary English, XXÏII (March, 1955), p. 148. 18

"I know well that only the rarest kind of best in anything can be

good enough for the young."

preface to Bells and Grass)

Availability and Flexibility

"7fliere -mill irork today?" pouted the child as he looked about

the well-filled arts area and then down at his own large sheet of


"I've a surprise for youI" the teacher replied, "Vfould you and

Terry like to work in a very special spot? Terry wants to paint, too,

and you may share a paint tray."

The "specialness" was inmodiately gobbled up with an excited,

"Qi yes I"

"Well, then," continued the teacher, "bring your paint tray,

acme brushes, and a can of clean water, and you may Trork together out

here in the hall where there is a smooth floor and plenty of space

and quiet. aren't you in luck today?"

Flexibility and availability of space involve such areas as*

large open spaces which will permit big movements of creative con-

struotion— in dance, music, dramatic play, related arts work, etc.}

adjustable space that is made possible by movable and portable

furniture; re-shaped space— halls, lunchrooms, playrooms, etc., which

serve a multiple number of purposes; wall space that adapts itself

as a display center or a v/orfcing surface; storage space for the tools

and materials that make creativity possible; and, most important. 19 space enough in every teacher's capacity to love and to make room for every child he teaches*

One teacher viho found that some children occasionally were unhappy by the seeming finality of a time schedule suggested that anyone who oared to do so might join her at work in the morning hour before the day officially commenced* IhiSj she explained, was her

"getting ready" time— a time to arrange fresh materials, etc*, but it might bo a good period for others to work also* The idea sprouted and became a most productive period, and some children even came in early just to help the teacher with displays, materials, and organi­ zation* It made children conscious, too, of the "back stage" prepar­ ation of teaching* As one child remarked, "îfy, teachers must love us a lot to do all this for us I"

If children are helped to realize why time is sometimes cut up into such odd shapes and designs, their reactions vdll usually be quite understanding and helpful, but if they believe that this is just another adult imposition their reactions are apt to be less considerate and sympathetic* The more flexible and available that time is allowed to become, the more children are given the respon­ sibility to help in the planning of time's design and use, and the more sincerely that time is considered on the basis of children's needs and interests— the more this element will be of value as a catalyst for creative growth and development*

#ien children are perpetual "Yfliere-are-the's?" sskers, it is a fairly accurate indicator that source and working materials lack 20 aved.lability and an easily identified place of their omi. The tools and materials necessary for creative expression should be made avail­ able in a place Tvhere they can be easily recognized, reached, and just as conveniently returned* Too, they need to be kept, in so far as possible, in the area in udiich they Ydll be used, A typewriter should be placed in a writing comer, the clay bin should be located near the clay table, records for listening should be stored adjacent to the phonograph, etc.

Materials should have a flexible quality, too— flexible enough to be moved and flexible enough to be considered with variations as to what now or as yet unexplored usage or adaptation might be made of them.

Perhaps in this over-all consideration of availability and flexibility— as these serve as catalysts— it is the people involved, and particularly the teachers, who are of prime concern here.

Certainly, humor gives personality a great resiliency, flexi­ bility, and warmth, and one teacher who exemplifies this character­ istic genuinely is Leland B, Jacobs.

It was the first day, and a hot one at that, of the summer quarter at the Ohio State University, The class in children's liter­ ature had assembled— perhaps "massed"would be a more appropriate word to describe the coming together, for there were over one-hundred students in a room designed for half that number. Then Dr. Jacobs came strolling in. He surveyed the sardine situation (he had been told he’d have a class of thlrty-flvel), mopped his over-moist brow. 21 and thon the evor-lurking Cheshire Cat in him grinned, "l/Vhy, my friends," he exlaimed, "if I’d a-knowed you were a-cornin’, I’da-baked a cake I" By virtue of that simple humor everyone felt accepted and at ease, and— strangely enough— the room seemed to grow bigger and airier. There was enough of teacher and enough of space to accommo­ date everyoneI

Flexibility and availability are in evidence in the classroom—

— ?dien a teacher says, "Let's look at this problem together."

Not, "Didn’t I tell you to do it this way?"

— when a teacher nudges a group but doesn’t make a fool of anyone— "Look, friends, it’s time to clean up." Not, "Gail, you’re the slowest person in this room."

— when a teacher has enough of himself to share with everyone, and when his attitude implies that there is enough time to go around...sort of an "open door" policy in the classroom.

— Then a teacher is consistent. That is, his sound vrnves are uniform and not erratic. He doesn't "sound off" in a bluster one day and assume the squeakiness of a mouse the next.

— when a teacher has good shock-absorbers. He listens with­ out shoTdng alarm, and he doesn't moralize at the turn of every emotional comer.

— "vdien a teacher respects student's choices, suggestions, and ideas and does something constructive m t h children about them.

— when a teacher can frankly admit that he doesn't know all the ansTJers and that knowledge is a continuing and re-shaping process for himself as well as others# 22

Lowenfeld refers to flexibility here:

Any form, of art expression is...a dynamic erer-ohanging process. It is •(his changing process T^Moh is of greatest educational significance, for through it the individual's mind remains flexible and adjustable. This is not only important for the student, but even more so for the teacher, "who needs this flexibility both to understand and motivate the individual and to be able to shift and adapt his -thinking from individual to individual.^®

And again this author speaks of the values of this resilient characteristics "Art in any form, as a dynamic outlet, will not only confront the creator with ever-changing problems, but will enhance the flexibility of his thinking and feeling.

Barkan gives a thorough review of these conditioning factors in the following paragraphs:

A teacher fulfills his educational role by making it more, rather than less, possible for individuals and small groups of children to explore their own ideas and to develop their own capacities -to the fullest degree. A good working situation utilizes time and space for activity with art materials so that children can develop their personal ideas and share them ■with the rest of the group.

In such a situation, there are few rigidities concern­ ing the use of time, choices of art media, selection of problems for work, and quantities of activities to be completed. The teacher recognizes that some children work faster than others; some are more excitedebout one material than another; and some have ideas to work on that require more time than others.^®

^^iktor Lovrenfeld, Creative and Mental Growth (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1952), p. 60. 17 Ibid., p. 264. 18 Barkan, op. cit., p. 210. 23

Barkan defines the teacher’s role further here:

...a teacher has an active role to perform. He talks ■with children about their ideas and helps them expand their understanding by identifying themselves ■with significant aspects of these ideas. He arranges whatever storage space there is available so that the children can have access to the materials they need. He develops convenient physi­ cal arrangements so that children uriio are "norking with similar materials and ideas can be close to each other. They can then discuss their common problems and help each other to aolutions.^^

Concern for Indi'viduality as Well as Groupnesa

A person's a person no matter how small. — Theodore Seuss Geisel

As a child relates himself to society— even though that "society" may be a very small one— so then does he also commence that miracu­ lous adventure of knotving and growing himself as a unique individual.

As the child starts gaining control of himself through adlscipline that is self-generated and constructively creative, then, too, will he free himself for greater experiences with his world and through creative action.

"Look what HS didl" stormed the children as they pointed to a paint smear on their nearly finished mural.

"Gene," questioned the teacher, "did you do this?"

"Yes," came the low reply.

"Was it an accident. Gone?"

"No'" came the defiant answer.

19 Ibid., p. 211. 24

"TiTell, do you I m o v r what made you do it?”

”l just felt like doing it, that's whatl” Then the tears came splashing over the countless freckles, and then, "I'm sorry," came in little gulps,

"Go wash your face. Gene," the teacher suggested, "and get a drink, too. You’ll feel "better then."

The mural group fixed up the dribbled smear, end Gene returned to the class.

"Gene, supposing you work over here," •fee teacher suggested,

"and since you seem to want to paint why not try a picture of your own?"

The child agreed that he'd like this arrangement and started to paint a large black object on the paper. Then came tears again.

"Troubles?" the teacher asked.

"ity dog was killed last night. I'm painting my dog now,"

And the tears trickled on down. Better not bother, the teacher thought; better put this over in Time's department.

The painting wasn't finished that day, nor the next, nor the next, nor the next. This was a painting that lasted three weeks.

Coat after coat of black paint went on with loving care. Small changes were made here and there, and still the painting of the dog remained the child's prime interest. At first he vrouldn't talk about his painting to other children. In fact, he stood over it, so that his body protected it from sight, but little by little he began to talk and to let others see what he was doing. Then one day he 25 asked the teacher, "Can you make aroal pretty gold paint?"

"TiBaat kind of gold do you need?" came the answer.

"The color of my dog's eyes."

"Oh, Gone, you forget that I nerer really know your dog.

I'd say that since you loved him so very much, only you could make a just-right color."

So he set to -work using a dribble of this color and a drop of that until he finally had his special gold.

"It’s a wonderful colorI" the teacher smiled.

"Enow how I did it?" he asked with pride, "I used yellow and just the teeniest drop of black and a little bit of that yellow-ish green, too. Good, isn't it?"

So he painted the dog's eyes, and he ivas pleased.

The next day Carolyn, a classmate, asked for gold paint.

"Ask Gene," the teacher suggested, "He makes very fine and very special gold paint."

A few minutes later Gene impatiently nudged the teacher,

”Say," he demanded, "do you mind if I don't work on my painting any more? It's through now and besides Carolyn and Jane are making a mural, and they need me to heIpI"

KBiat does a smear of point mean? Maybe an accident— maybe not. It can be just another way of saying, "Help me." A child speaks his needs in so many different ways. 26

% Dog

Age 7

Of the indiTidual in the creative school Strickland sayst

We stimulate creative activities in the elementary school not for the sake of the activities but for the purpose of developing creative individuals or*, more exactly, of helping each individual build a self that is creative.

The school years are years in -which the child's attitude toward himself as a learner, an achiever, a creative tjdnker

and doer are formed. W e who teach need to give thought to some of the components of a healthy personality,^®

And a trio of educators comment here about indlvidual!ty as it relates to groupnesss

20 Strickland, 0£, cit., p. 147. 27

Aa you work ■with children in the m o d e m elementary Bohool* you oome to realize how much teacher time is spent in guiding the whole group or small groups. Fre­ quently teachers say that they have so little time to ivork with individuals. However, in a very real sense, group work is always individual work. Even in group- work situations, the modern teacher must conceive his role primarily as that of coordinating the efforts of i ndivi dual s •

Cooperation and Love

Love is anterior to life. Posterior to death. Initial of creation, and The exponent of breath.

— Emily Dickinson.

The teacher was now, and the eight-year-old child was being very, very cautious. She didn’t work. She watched the teacher from a safe distance and stayed near a child with whom she felt secure.

"Sue lynne, would you like to help me fill these paper cups with paint?" the teacher suggested.

Ho emswer came, and* the child turned her back.

The next day the teacher again approached the child and tried to encourage this shy one to tell of some of her interests. This time the child replied, "i'll watch Gerald paint today."

The following day the teacher merely smiled and said nothing to Sue lynne, and it was Sue Lynne who made the first move! She followed the teacher to the ivood supply room and there, alone, con-

21 James B. Burr, Lowry W. Harding, and Leland B. Jacobs, Student Teaching in the Elementary School (New York: Appleton- Contury-Crofts, Inc., 1950), p. 253. 28 fronted her •with the problem that had bothered* "Do you Ioto me?" the child asked looking frightened lest this not be so*

"Vfliy yea. Sue Lynne, I lore you just aa I love allihe others."

"Are you sura?"

"I couldn’t be more sure, and what's more I think you're going to do some very fine things this year."

The child said no more until the teacher gathered up the tools, and then she asked, "Will you hold my hand?"

"I'll hold your hand if you’ll help carry tools."

' It was agreed. The soft brotm hand slipped trus-tingly into the teacher’s free right one.

The next day the question came again, "Do you still love me?"

yes’" smiled the teacher.

"Ify mother says she thinks you do too," the child confided*

Then, after a weighty pause, she added, "You can call me 'Sukie' — that's what my mother calls me."

"Sukie it shall be," agreed the teacher feeling very flattered.

"Nofw I'll paint," announced the child with a relieved sigh,

"Will you ait beside me?"

"Only sometimes, Sukie, because there are others -who need help too."

"Well, don't forgot your ’somo'bimos’ then*"

Sukie painted her first picture that day— Red Rain she called it* She said she just loved redl 29


Red Rain

Age 8

Ashley-Montagu says of such a needs

’’TOiat is the nature of life?” can be expressed in one word, oo -ope rati on—the interaction between organ­ isms for mutual support in such a way aa to confer survival benefits upon each other# Another word for the same love#^^

It takes time, as Marie Easey would have us understand— time to know ourselves, time to know and trust others, time to experience, time to get steamed up, time to know how we might use our steam, time to got the yeast a-working, time and space to let

22 "p. Ashley-Montau, On Being Human (New York* Henry Schuman, 1950), p. 47. 30 the yeast grow, and time— yes, lots of time— to create. Anyone who has ever done much kitchen and/or classroom creating knows, too, that a little warmth and a pinch of sugar hasten the action consid­ erably. 31




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Tell me where is Fancy bred. Or in the heart, or in the head? How begot, how nourished? Reply, reply.

...William Shakespeare (from: The Iforohont of Venice)

Since Fancy is the twin of Imagery and the sister grace of

Creativity, perhaps it might be well to re-phrase the poet's query and consider where Creativity is bred, and, further, to ascertain what conditions are the most receptive to its emergence and unfolding.

In Brewster Ghiselin's exciting symposium on creativity his gifted writers have penned their thoughts on this subject from time past to time present.

For young Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart the matter of actual place— the "where"— was rather inconsequential, and beauty was spontaneously created even while jouncing about in a bumpity, drafty carriage. The psychological setting seems to have been reposing serenely and secure­ ly within the young composer himself, for hero, in almost childlike delight, he tells of this happy gift of composing:

When I am, as it were, completely myself, entirely alone, and of good cheer— say travelling in a carriage, or walking after a good meal, or during the night when I cannot sleep; it is on such occasions that my ideas flow best and most abundantly. Ti’ihenoe and how they come, I know not; nor can I force them. Those ideas that please me I retain in memory, and am accustomed, as I have been told, to hum them to myself. If I continue in this way, it soon occurs to me how I may turn this or

— 39 — 40

that morsel to acoouut» so as to make a good dish of it, that is to say, agreeably to the rules of counterpoint, to the peouliarities of the various instruments, etc*

All this fires my soul, and, provided I am not dis­ turbed, my subject enlarges itself, becomes methodised and defined, and the •whole, though it be long, stands almost complete and finished in my mind, so that I can survey it, like a fine picture or a beautiful statue, at a glance* Nor do I hear in my imagination the parts successively, as it "were, all at once (gleich allés zusaaimie'n)» TVhat a delight this is I cannot telll All this inventing, this producing, takes place in a pleasing lively dream* Still the actual hearing of the tout ensemble is after all the best* IVhat has been thus pro­ duced I do not easily forget, and this is perhaps the best gift I have my Divine Bfeker to thank for*

"When I proceed to •write down ny ideas, I take out of the bag of my memory, if I may use that phrase, what has been previously collected into it in the way I have men­ tioned* For this reason the committing to paper is done quickly enough, for everything is, as I said before, already finished; and it rarely differs on paper from what it was in my imagination. At this occupation I can therefore suffer myself to be disturbed; for ■whatever may be going on around me, I write, and even talk, but only of fowls and geese, or of Gretel or Barbel, or some suoh matters* But •why my productions talce from my hand that particular form and s-fcyle that makes them îübzartish, and different from the works of other composers, is probably owing to the same cause which renders my nose so large or so aquiline, or, in short, makes it Mozart’s, and different from those of other people. For I really do not study or aim at any originality#^®

Ludwig von Beethoven’s passion for unleashing creativity into a magnificent structure cf sound was painstakingly drawn from one •vdio lived in a flood of silence, nor was his ability to create as fluent as that agility demonstrated by Mozart* Beethoven wrestled laboriously with the musical giant that constantly goaded

Ghiselifa, 0£* oit.# pp* 34-35* 41 into creative expression, but once gripped the giant iwas his:

On BÇT way to Vienna yesterday, sleep overtook me in my carriage...•'While thus slumbering I dreamt that I had gone on a far journey, to no less a place than Syria, on to Judea and back, and then all the v/ay to Arabia, when at length I actually arrived at Jerusalem. The Holy City gave rise to thoughts of the Holy Books# No wonder then if the man Tobias occurred to me, whioji led me to think of our own little Tobias and our great Tobias# Noit during my dream-journey the following canon came into m y head:

u Æ g H

0 To- bi- as 0 To-bi-as ir fir Tiff O'

Do- ml- nus Ha,

,s lin-ger 01 01 0 To- bi- asi

But scarcely did I awake when away flew the canon, and I could not recall any part of it. On returning here however, next day, in the same carriage....I re­ sumed my dream-journey, being on this occasion wide awake, when lo and beholdl in accordance with the laws of association of ideas, the same oanon flashed across me; so being now awake I held it as fast as Msnelaus did Proteus, only permitting it to be changed into three parts#..24

24 Ibid., pp# 42, 43# 42

Stephen Spender, the poet, tells of those who find it neces­ sary to stage their psychological setting in order the better to humor their individual whims or eccentricities and to wheedle the muse into a more productive states

The problem of creative writing is essentially one of concentration, and the supposed eccentricities of poets are usually due to mechanical habits or rituals developed in order to concentrate. Concentration, of course, for the purpose of writing poetry, is different from the kind of concentration required for working out a sum. It is a focussing of the attention in a special way, so that the poet is aware of all the implications and possible devel­ opments of his idea, just as one might say that a plant was not concentrating on developing mechanically in one direction, but in many directions, tov/ards the warmth and light with its leaves, and towards the water with its roots, all at the same time*

Schiller liked to have a smell of rotten apples, con­ cealed beneath the lid of his desk, under his nose when he was composing poetry. Walter de la has told me that he must smoke when writing. Auden drinks endless cups of tea. Coffee is my ovm addiction, besides smok­ ing a great deal, which I hardly ever do except when I am writing. I notice also that as I attain a greater concentration, this tends to make me forget the taste of the cigarette in my mouth, and then I have a desire to smoke two or even three cigarettes at a time, in order that the sensation from the outside may penetrate through the wall of concentration vdiioh I have built round my- self.25

And Plato would have his readers believe that true poets must seek the fringes of lunacy to capture this gift of the gods ;

He who without the Muses ’ madness in his soul comes knocking at the door of poesy and thinks that art will make him anything fit to be called a poet, finds that

B^ibid., p. 114* 4S

the poetry whioh he indites in his sober senses is beaten hollow by the poetry of madmen. — Plato

Many a would-be creator has known only too well the psycho­ logical setting that is staged by the gnawing torment so deeply experienced and so knowingly expressed by van Gogh (through

Ghiselin) here:

Vincent van Gogh must have felt some such dissatis­ faction when in 1880 he wrote to his brother Theo about his feeling that he was one of those men who are somehow mysteriously imprisoned, "prisoners in an I-don*t-know- what-for horrible, horrible, utterly horrible cage." As we know, the trouble was not that van Gogh was incapable of action. It was rather that he had not found that expression of his impulses which would satisfy him. He writes further of "the man who is doomed to remain idle, whose heart is eaten out by an anguish for work, but who does nothing because he is as it were imprisoned in something. Because he hasn't got just that vdiloh he needs in order to be creative. Because the fate of cir­ c*mstances has reduced him to a state of nothingness* Such a man often doesn't know himself what he might do, but he feels instinctively: yet am I good for something, yet am I aware of some reason for existingI I know that I might be a totally different manl Eovf then can I be useful, how can I be of servicei Something is alive in me: vdrnt can it be&"2G

But there are those who, having richly experienced the

creative aot both freely and delightfully, have produced in full measure and with superb quality in a setting almost jocund and gay.

Felix Msndelssohn ivas such a favored one. Indeed, his very name,

Felix, means "happy."

Thus, though creativity is often accompanied by a racking, stretching fullness and again by a forceful, urgent, and often

26 Ibid., pp. 3, 4. 44 painful extrusion, the process yet remains a prime cause for grace.

Indeed, if a meta-physical interpretation be given the following simple child’s grace, creativity is a true cause for thankfulness.

Some hae meat, And canna eat And some wad eat That vmmt itj

But TUB hae meat

And v i e can eat. And sae the Lord Be thank it.

— Robert B u m s

Inspiring so that Children May Aspire

...there is a spirit in man; and the inspiration of the Almighty giveth them understanding.

...the Bible Job 32:8

Perhaps it is the teacher’s responsibility to be cause for

grace— to provide a setting where creativity may be germinated and nurtured, and where children may further stretch and grow. In such an environment inspiration is a paramount factor, and it is

Ghiselin quoting Roger Sessions who observes: "Inspiration, then,

is the impulse which seta creation in movement* it is also the

2 7 energy which keeps it going."

Herbert Read analyzes inspiration’s role and character in

this manner :

...inspiration should have a fourfold character, and indeed there is no difficulty in distinguishing

?7 'ibid., p. 5. 45

these modes* The sudden solution of the intellectual problem, the ’automatic’ or lyrical expression of feeling in poetry, the improvised dance or play activi­ ty as a release of suppressed energy, the intuitional apprehension of now relations of form in mathematics, music and architecture— these are the inspired moments upon which human progress in the arts and sciences ultimately depends*2°

That which inspires the young seems literally to breathe into them the energizing impulse of creativity* This, then, becomes a means of willing children to gain new insights*..feelings*..and learning, to act and react and interact with an expanding world, to exert anew their unique potentials, and to fulfill life’s promise more deeply and meaningfully* Thus, through the quickening of creative breath, the child is placed in a clime where he dares to aspire— to reach for a richer experiencing*

Murphy contemplates the experiencing self here:;

There is, first, sensitiveness, the presence of a need that satisfies itself and feeds upon more and more material of a certain type— color, space relations, tone, rhythm. As satiation occurs, the need sets itself a bigger, more complex goal of the same type; and the individual learns to create. Second, there is a long accumulation of experiences which mediate richer and richer contact with the material needed; this is a period of acquisition, strain, and unfulfilled desire* Third, usually in a moment of excited self-direction toward the goal, an integration of the accumulated material takes place in which both conscious and sub­ conscious storehouses of experience are drawn from* A whole that is the answer to the long quest is made manifest in a moment often characterized by the term illumination# Finally, as the need and achievement relived again and again, it becomes clear that the need is not perfectly fulfilled or that secondary needs are

28 Herbert Read, op* oit., p* 112# 46

still frustrated, and the work of art or of science is accordingly hammered out until it is more adequato#29

This stretching to m r d a new perspective of self, this out­ growing of one’s own small dimensions, this tingling expansion of person— this is the beauty of being, the quickening of avjareness, the becoming of self,

Jersild vfrites of this acquisition of self here:

The self is acquired. It is not ready-made. It develops as a person, with his inborn abilities and tendencies and all that is inherent in his make-up, meets up with the experiences of life. The develop­ ment is influenced strongly, as we have noted and will dwell upon again, by his relationships with other people. The development of the self is influenced by the child’s growing powers of perception and, in time, by his ability to imagine, to form large and comprehen­ sive concepts, to appreciate values and commitments, and to take a stand for or against,®®

And Jfeams cautions each to find himself if he would find true creative involvement*

Of course, none of us has the same mental make-up, so there is no sure recipe for enticing the creative forces to work; the point for the pupil is by studying himself to find out what for him is best,®^

But what sparks inspiration in young children? Perhaps a keen responsiveness to Things : the fineness and early communion

•with great art and true artists, the raw strength and force of

giant tools— a crane’s enormous earth mover's mighty

^®Gfardner Mxrphy, Personality (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1947), p, 466, ®^Arthur T. Jersild, In Search of Self (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University," 1952), p. 16, ®^Hughes Msarns, Creative Youth (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Doran, & Co., Inc., 1925), p, 9, 47 mastications...and the rhythmic jouncing of an animated air hammer, a growing delight in nature’s unexcelled artistry, and an incredu­ lity at the productiveness emerging from one’s own self.

Or the inspiration created by a perceptive awareness to

Ifbvementi a world grown snug in snow’s fast swirling farandole, the scherzo quality of a squirrel’s impetuous tail, a ballot by willows practicing Spring to a I&iroh wind’s music, the staccato precision of a nimble rain, the fascination of wheels and whirring things, the incredible yearning that associates itself vdth things that fly, the quick-silvered movement of a licking fire, and the thrill of expression found through one’s ovm bodily movements.

Sound? This too inspires when children have a fresh aware­ ness to it. Listen to words and the voice or voices that speak or sing them, music and its source or sources of productivity, warn­ ing sounds, poetic sounds, hurry sounds, stop sounds, insect sounds, animal sounds, machine sounds, plant sounds, sad sounds, secret sounds, happy sounds, and the troubling sound of prolonged silence.

Sounds? There are worlds of them which to inspire and be in­ spired!

What inspiration there is in the active identification of

Smell, tool There’s the exciting aroma of seasons— autumn’s burning pungency, winter’s sterile cleanness, spring’s fresh-bathed sweet­ ness, and summer’s heavy-scented ripeness. There’s a nostalgia about familiar scents— wood shavings all spicy and cedar clean, bread 48 rising in a satisfied oven, the sneaker odor inhabiting a musty gymn, the September smell of newly varnished desks, and the wonder­ ful smell of one’s own hom*o. Oh, there are city smells and country smells, wedding smells and funeral smells, familiar smells and foreign smells, water smells and land smells, every-day boiled- cabbage smells, and dressed-up party and perfumery smells 1

And the dynamic involvement of Self with Thought is a prime mover, too. Spoken thoughts, -written thoughts, looked thoughts, smiled thoughts, questioned thoughts, teasing thoughts, dramatized thoughts, mulled thoughts, dreamed thoughts, great thoughts, small thoughts, and all the many, many thoughts unleashed that go skiddle- akaddling about seelcing a likely place to nibble, nudge, or negoti­ ate.

And the fresh, vivid a-wakoning and response to Sight and

Touch and Taste— all three— what inspiring companions thesel The sight of wonders is ever new— grain dancing to a summer -wind, a spider’s vreb of fairy form and filament, the shadowy depths of ooral beach and sea, and a cat tormented by the twitchery of her own taill The touch of beauty is Madame Ceoropia’s wing, the limpid -wash of fingers trailing water’s coolness, the plasticity of summer mud oozing slushily between uns hodden toes, and the bumpity ridges of a fence slapping fingers rhythmically in hurried passing. There’s taste to be reckoned with, too. The texture of new words slithering wonderfully over tongue and teeth, the body's pleasured taste for sun-dried sheets in sun-baked weather, the skin’s delight in caavoring silken loveliness, and the spirit’s 49 needful taste for confidence*..for love...for understanding*

Bead writes here of this grotsdng aesthetic education of the

senses t

...the theory to he put forward embraces all inodes of self-expression, literary and poetic (verbal) no loss than musical or aural, and forms an integral approach to reality which should be called aesthetic education— the education of those senses upon which consciousness, and ultimately the intelligence and judgment of the human individual, are based* It is only in so far as those senses are brought into harmonious and habituai relation­ ship with the external world that an integrated person­ ality is built up* Without such integration we get, not only the psychologically unbalanced types familiar to the psychiatrist, but what is even more disastrous from the point of view of the general good, those arbitrary systems of thought, dogmatic or rationalistic in origin, which seek in despite of the natural facts to impose a logical or intellectual pattern on the world ofcrganio life.

This adjustment of the senses to their objective environment is perhaps the most Important function of aesthetic education.

Truly, inspiration is a thing of feathers made**.a gift ivith wings*..a lovely, soaring bird*

Perhaps it was inspiration that was sought so long ago by this anonymous viriter who pleaded:

God be in my hede And in my unde rs tandyng , God be in syne eyes And in my lokyng, God be in my mouth And in my spoakyng, God be in my harte And in my thihkyng**. from: The Sarum Primer, ‘ Ï55Ô■

32 Read, op. cit., pp. 7, 8* 50

Deway reflects on inspiration vdth these thoughts: "To be set on fire by a thought or scene is to be inspired, % a t is kindled must either b u m itself out, turning to ashes, or must press itself out in material that changes the latter from crude „35 metal into a refined product."

One very special friend of children Trvho constantly inspires the young by sharing herself, her scope and breadth of •wisdom, and her discriminate store of loveliness once gave a collective gift of varied art objects to a school. Included in this gift vms a

Braque print in black and white depicting Hercules beset by the encumbering snares of man-made shackles, T/Vhilo vie-wing and discus­ sing these gifts for the first time, a second grade child rather unexpectedly selected this print as his personal favorite among all the lovely art objects given the children,

’’And why do you like this one best?" the child was asked,

"Oh," he immediately responded, "I like the lines ■'aîid all these shapes, but most of all I like the beautiful colors,"

"ColorsI" exclaimed a baffled classmate, "VJhy, it’s just plain black and white,"

"Oh yes," reassured the first child, "That’s T/hy I like it.

You see," he continued, "the black and white let me see all the other lovely colors in my mind."

33 John Dewey, op, oit,, p. 65, 51

Children are inspired differently* The hum and roll of a school bus may be singing a song to one child, to another it may be quickening into existence a kaleidoscopic sequence of colorful shapes and forms, but to others the twlce-a-dny ride may represent only a dreary moans to an end— not a beginning.

Then there are children who seemingly become inspired from an inner well-spring, and in yielding to themselves they pour out some vital part of their sincere experiencing* In the process they often see no one, feel no near presence, and sometimes would prefer having no one about*

Twelve-year-old Jennifer is a snug cocoon while wrapped up in her own artistic metamorphosis. Steadily and serenely she con­ tinues to paint even though a nearby jointer in the arts area may be masticating wood with a fearful din.

Robert, a quiet fifth-grade boy, has fingers that v m r k with feather fleetness as he understandingly manipulates a lump of clay*

He seemingly prefers solitude and quiet as v/orklng companions, but his absorption in his work usually surrounds him v/ith these vfhether they exist in actuality or not*

Children, too, have little whims which they often encourage as inspirational security* Eight-year old Anley likes to have eight-year old Judy near by so there will be a compatible working situation— one in which Anley showers Judy with a chatty running account of what she is doing while happy but pensive Judy listens casually as she contentedly vrorks on her own projects * Here is a 52 highly productive tvTO-some vdiose inspirational needs are at least partially met in each other's presence*

Occasionally inspirational whims take the shape of Things*

First-grade Rita announced one day that she worked host while wearing her much-loved, tangerine velvet hair-bowsl Even a pre­ school tot felt this inner "specialness" created by Things, for there came a day when he efferveaoently bubbled, "I can do AKYTEIIIG today— I have on I®T SHOES I"

And the little smattering of nonsense that so knowingly com­ plains "I would if I could, but I can't!" certainly personifies the feelings of many children who are inspired, but who can find no acceptable creative outlet through Tdiich to give vent to their aspirations* In such a case, the unhappiness thus caused by the would-ness coupled with the supposed can't-ness is often so in­ tense that children will literally fight with themselves if they are thus plagued* IVhen nino-year-old Tomny pounded his fists on the table and announced in tear-dripped words that he just couldn't make his clay piece turn out right, he was asked if he would like to put the clay away for the day and turn to something else* "No!" he stormed, "I want to do it NOW, but it won't let me!"

Whereupon the teacher sat down nearby and commenced to work a piece of idle clay, then another child joined these tvro and started talking about the behavior of clay* The newcomer remarked happily that clay seemed to talk to him and he liked it* 53

"It talks to youl" exclaimed the doubting member, "That's


"Vfell," commented the second child, "the clay just sort of tolls your fingers -what to do after it gets acquainted I"

The tear-stained one grumbled a disbelieving disparagement,

but slowly his fingers relaxed their frantic efforts and commenced instead to ask friendship of the clay. The teacher moved on. Some while later the once troubled child beckoned with a muddy finger.

"How do you like it?" he proudly demanded. The clay had responded.

Msams comments knowingly here on the indifference of the

creative spirit to both impatient urgency and the demands of an

immediate at-once-ness:

We discover, too, Vfhat seems to be a law of the creative spirit, that it does not, except on rare occasions, give forth its boat at once. The sad part of the systery of creative effort is that v/ith every sign of the divine afflatus the product is not always good. Eere is where a sympathetic understand­ ing of the forces at work is imperatively needed from teacher or friend (I wish there could be no real distinction!) Out of the mass of not-so-good may come enough material to build on; or, at least, some obstruction to the Creative Spirit is got out of the way. Inferior work seems sometimes to appear of necessity before the deeper best may reach expression.

VVhen children are creatively able to meet the aspired chal­

lenge to which inspiration has so temptingly led them, then do they thrilling begin to realize that "Wo are such stuff as dreams are

34 Ifearns, o^. cit., p. 6. 54 made on*..” (irailiam Shakespeare, from: The Tempest. Act IV,

Soene I).

Capitalizing on the Inter-Related Aspect of the Arts

From the point of view of the Creative Spirit, the arts are one; only the product is different*®^

In one civilization a world removed, the arts are life, and life is an art— spoken*.danced*.and sung, thrilled*.painted*.and dramatized* The elements of sky and earth and sea do the inspiring— they dance, these three, and shall man immobile be? The sun leans down his story to relate, the sea sweeps forward and then retreats before its mystery is complete, the sand and rocks both laugh and weep*..and man? Shall he no drama see? The shades of earth, the black of sea, and the brilliance of a cerulean sky are framed for­ ever by the eye...and man? Shall he no artist be? Ifere in this island world man lives serene, complete* Bis is a dance of life moved in a shadowed, poetic overlay upon the basic pattern of his simple Polynesian culture* Not artist, nor musician, nor dancer, no not even a dramatist is he, but he stands a whole man who in his lifetime blends all these arts and more into the fullness and naturalness of happy, cooperative living*

In another culture the pattern of living is quite different*

The satisfying simplicity is often obscured, the earth’s chiaroscuro is patterned not so much by sea and sky but by the complexities of

35 Ibid., p* 8, 55 man's inventive mind* Life's music is a fretful tune**a sometime's thing**a momentary ditty— perhaps a tin-roofed calypso tune pushed through an agonizing trumpet hy a fast moving rush of syncopated fhythm, and drama is often a pseudo-psychological narration sound­ ing vainly the plumb of man's bovdldored inner being* Today's child often does not see the basic unity of nature's thrilling trilogy— the earth, the sea, and sky, but rather he appears to be a

Cyclops in an umvilled becoming— a Cyclops with one nyopio eye*** the master eye of others * *.television, packaged productivity, and categorized creativity*

Thus, whereas inter-relatedness in the arts has a spontan­ eity in one culture, there is need to nurture it rather carefully in another*

Barkan refers to such cultural differences in these para­ graphs s

In other cultures, participation in the arts was an integral part of the mode of living— the ideals and

aspirations of communal life* In our o v m culture,

artistic action is only now being recognized as & com­ ponent of healthy human behavior* There is growing awareness of the positive value of creative involve­ ment for the satisfaction of personal needs, for social well-being* This changing point of view offers potentneans for art education to develop as a signifi­ cant aspect of human experience* It presents the challenge for art education*

Comparative cultural studies show how artistic action could be widespread and valued in the way of life* In other cultures, participation in the arts grew out of a way of life which seemed to encourage and foster it* This is not the source of artistic energy today, nor can we hope to return to the way 56

of life Tvhioh -wDuld encourage it for us in^ the same tvay as it did for other peoples. Today, value in artistic action is "being recognized ^ spite of dominant factors operating in opposition to it. Creative involvement is giving experience in the arts a nev/ source of energy and value in its orai right.®®

Of Misio, Poetry, Painting and Pots

In a certain fourth grade group the art teacher observed that the children’s work lacked honest vibrance of color. It had a

"mousey" characteristic that betrayed a "let’s-be-at-it-and-done" attitude. So the teacher talked with the children about "singing colors" and how beautiful they were.

"jBal" scoffed one lilliput skeptic, "Colors can’t singl"

But the teacher assured him that she’d heard them and she felt sure that if the group really tried to find them, they’d discover singing colors, too. Of this they were extremely doubtful, but now and again a child would nudge the teacher, point to his paint­ ing and ask, "Does it sing?" and she vrould parry back v/ith, "Does it?" They knew, but they were ti-ying* Then one day as the teacher was encouraging a child with his clay work she felt another child dancing up and down beside her.

"%11, Beth?" she asked.

"LookI" the child fairly exploded, "They singl"

On the wall was Beth's first oil painting— a painting of autumn trees, and it did sing. Its rhythm fairly skipped and the tones of autumn sang in full chorus, so it was then that the teacher

®®Barkan, op. cit., p. 60. 57

Autumn Trees

Age 8

shared a favorite poem vriLth the child and the group:

There is something in the autumn that is native to my blood— Touch of manner, hint of moods And my heart is like a rhyme, V/ith the yellow and the purple and the crimson keeping time.

The scarlet of the maples oan shake ms like a cry Of bugles going by. And my lonely spirit thrills To see the frosty asters like a smoke upon the hills.

There is something in October sets the gypsy blood astir; life must rise and follow her, 1'flien from every hill of flanÆ She calls and calls each vagabond by name,

— Bliss Carman 58

So the group talked about those singing colors~the bugle reds and yellows and all, and this time everyone oould hear them.

Suddenly the idea stretched itself, and one child remembered the thrill he had experienced earlier in the fall when he had returned to school and had found the art area gaily re-deoorated* ’’I'Shy, this room singst” he announced disooveringly, and others eagerly nodded and agreed, and then someone accused, '‘"Why didn’t you tell us?" but, of course, secrets are far more fun not told— but found I

A few days later Beth furthered her "singing" acquaintance with autumn in the form of a poem, and this is what she wrote:

The leaves come down

T/hen Autumn turns them

Rod, yellow and brown.

And when the wind blows

Through the tree.

It blows leaves




Some months passed and life magazine unknowingly cooperated by featuring an article about "Pots that Sing," and many children brought the clipping in to share vjlth various art groups. This in­ spired and stimulated afresh a desire to really create rhythm and lyrical flow into the plastic third dimension that clay provides# 59

Helatinfi Whimsy and ITitohery

Ab Ha.llawo'Qn time a group of fifth graders were ’’stumped" as to how to create unusual creatures to befit the ivltchory of the season. old favorite— short and whimsical— popped into the teacher’s mind, and so it was shared:

From Ghouliea and Ghosties,

And long-loggity Beasties,

And all Things that go bump in the Night,

Good Lord deliver us.

— from: An Old Cornish Idtany

The line— "And Things that go bump in the Night," was the key. Since no one is ever quite sure of all the night's mysterious bumps, things did not have to be pumpkins, ghosts, witohes, or even black cats• Novr they became imaginative nocturnal shapes which were truly wonderful to see. The awe of the night loomed large and fantastic, and -Mdiile the boys and girls worked to create visual ingressions they did much discussing of unseen "things" that worried and scurried about in the corridors of their minds when lights are gone and only the unfamiliar night shapes and sounds keep their vigil*

Toward the afternoon's close the children asked to toll

Hallovre'en stories. Then someone bobbed up with the idea that an

original round-robin Hallovie’en story as told by the created

"Bumpsl" might be fun. The result vreis delightful, imaginative, and if a guess might be hazarded, even slightly therapeuticI 60

Such on-going levels of creative awareness are viewed by

Barkan here:

An individual who participates in the creative process interacts with his idea and his medium* Ho reaches new levels of awareness in the process because his inter­ action causes both idea and medium to develop into now and unforeseen forms. This requires flexibility in the way the individual holds to his original idea. It affects the degree to which he can creatively plan and pre-detonnine his action. In the visual arts, the creative process hinges on the degree of flexibility exhibited by the individual as ho strives to bring his mental image and his physical material into harmonious relationship

A-growing and A-building

Sometimes construction in process sets up a tremendous in­ spirational chain of inter-relatedness. A group of second graders

v A i o had been intently studying the construction of a university arena were one day challenged by the thought that music, science, art, dance, and language are all similarly constructed even though the tools and materials needed in the making are not always booms and cranes and steel and rivets * In the process of exploring this idea, the children were fascinated by the "phrase” construction of music and by the forcefulness of chords that "rivet" the harmony and melody together, and one child painted a thrilling picture showing the way a musical composition seemed to grow for him. The main theme was like a tree trunk, and all the branches were subsid­ iary themes that led out and fed back into the main floiv of the music*

37 Ibid., pp. 140, 141* 61

This individual experience opened the door to an art discussion in which the children critically looked at the work done by them­ selves, and they lot the painting, the pots, and their other made oreations talk* Yfliat purpose, what tools, v/hat construction, what use, what loveliness did these represent? How were they like the arena, like music? Next the children looked at the works of other artists, and their excitement and appreciation and understanding grow a-pacol How they wanted to challenge themselves to be better builders and to try building in different and now media*


Age 7 62

Soon the boys and girls ooimnencod to vn*ite the story of the construction of the St. John Arena, and again they found that

they w e r e constructing all over again. This time their materials vrere ideas, and the tools vrere words, phrases, sentences, and even paragraphs. Here was one class story:


The pi le driver runs by steam. "When the steam is

reversed, the weight comes doim on the piling. W e did not see it working today.

The crames run on big treads. The biggest crane oan lift 75 tons. The medium sized crane can lift 50 tons. The small crane can lift 25 tons. There are holes in the steel girders for the hooks on the crane to fit in. The crane lifts the steel girders to the steel plates set in concrete. They fasten the girders to the plates vdth big bolts. The girders are painted chartreuse to rust proof them. They were putting the girders in the comers to support the arches that form the top of the arena.

In dance these same children built transient motion in infinite space; in play their games were built on patterns— some old, some new; in science they found that by watering and tending their plants they vrere building a miraculous thing called "life.”

The awarenesses of those children have materialized greatly through an inter-related expanse of vision, and perhaps they are commencing to know a little of that beauty of which the poet speaks here:

Beauty is seen In the sunlight. The trees, the birds. Corn growing and people working Or dancing for their harvest. 63

Beauty is heard In the night, vand sighing, rain falling. Or a singer chanting Anything in earnest.

Beauty is in yourself. Good deeds, happy thoughts That repeat themselves In your dreams. In your work. And even in your rest. --E-Yeh-Shure

About Mind, Motion, and Masio

Hughes Meorns has said that: "Children's art at its best is always something in the nature of a confession; it admits one in- 38 stantly into the privacy of personal thinking and feeling," Here, then, is an incident -which documents that thought.

The hallway was long and shado-wy and unpeopled save for a flaxen-haired child who was getting a drink at the far, far end of the corridor. Suddenly as if a band of elfin musicians had com­ menced fluting a charmed lilt, the child opened her arms and with a graceful t-nirl lightly leaped from reality into a world all- fancy-free . The motion was exquisite and spontaneous, and at times the small dancer would pause momentarily to beckon unseen creatures to come flying with her* Finally, at the other end of the hall, the dance ceased, and with a regal gesture that began wi-fch the

•wrist but took in the child’s whole body the dancer dismissed her invisible fairy court. Then, the cloak of fancy lifted, the child walked hurriedly back to her room. Later in the morning a teacher

38 Hughes I&arnSf Creative Power (Garden City, Heiy York:

Doubleday, Doran & Co., Inc., 1930), p. 88. 64

■who had stayed her errand through the hall to stand quietly in a doorway— the better to see unseen— told the child how she had en­ joyed the danoe,

"Did you really see. me?" the child asked. "Then you knowl"

"Enow?" queried the teacher.

"Oh yes," radiated the child, "I was the Queen of the

Gremlins this morning I"

"How excitingl" thrilled the teacher, "But where was the music for your dance?"

"OhI" laughed Alice, musicians always travel with mal"

And the twinkling words echo a knowing refrain again:

Tell me where is Fancy bred. Or in the heart, or in the head?

For sometimes the child is piper and dancer all in one. Sometimes he achieves that magnificent at-one-ness -with life when for a sus­ pended moment he finds the delight of infinite art •within the amazing capacities of himself. Here has he been led by inspiration, here has he risen to aspiration, and here— for a swift interim— has he thrillingly achieved.

Seizing Creative Irfoments

They coma— these breathless moments— not always as antici­ pated joys, but often in a mushroomed unexpoctanoy. Sometimes they are the crowning of a climax that has been in the making over a 65 period of ■bime» Ab other times the creatiire moment is the begin­ ning— the sweetness of a clarion call— for the onset of a creative adventure, but whenever the moment comes it is wonderful, swift, and beautiful. Perhaps Shakespeare caught the pure essence of this creative delight when he wrote:

0 wonderful, wonderful And most wonderful, wonderful I And yet again wonderful*..

Recognizing the Value of Drama

A oombinod grouping of children from grades two, three, and four were delightedly listening to I&ndelssohn's Ihdsummer Might' s

Dream music with the intense purpose of thinking through how the music might be danced and dramatized. The children fancied them­ selves spritely fairies fluttering through a forest, but what to do other than swooping and swirling disturbed them*

"Let’s listen once again to some of the music," the teacher suggested, "and let’s see ourselves doing fairy things to prepare for a wedding in the forest."

So they listened, and as the music ceased there ivas only a small insecure silence which was abruptly broken by an almost inaud­ ible gasp and then a breathless, "Ohl I know, I knowI"

Everyone turned to small seven-year old Nancy whose face looked as if she had just glimpsed the fairy pageantry of the entire scene*

"■What would you do, Nancy?" asked the smiling teacher* 66

"Oh," exolaimed the child in an almost incoherent rush of

■words, "I’d stTOop doTvn the cobwebs and dust off the moss I"

There it -mas— a creative, poetic moment, and the children

themselves seized it mentally and sailed off*

"I’d shine the stars I"

"I’d hang up the moonî"

"I’d sprinkle moon beams all through the air— like this I"

"And I’d close all the floivers for the night I "

"Let’s do itl"

And they did— vronderfully, meaningfully, and all sparkly v/ith

the glitter that only a child’s oreati've imagination oan elicit*

Recognizing the Value of Seasonal Phenomena

The story is told that Emily Dickinson's father, himself an

ardent naturalist, one day at sundown rushed hurriedly to the town

hall where he rang the village bell -with groat urgency and vigor*

Since the bell only voiced its tongue in times of great common

concern, the town folk of peaceful Amherst quickly gathered in

clamoring consternation. ViTas there disaster— a fire, a quake, a

tlureat of war?

"LookI" exclaimed the elder Dickinson, pointing in answer

to the western horizon*

"That do you see?" breathlessly persisted a town father as

he scanned the skies*

"The sunsetI" exploded the bell ringer* And there. Indeed, 67

•ms a magnifioonce of na-fcure displaying both rare and radiant beauty- a true cause for common concern*

This passion for natural beauty •was instilled into young

Emily, and, therefore, it is not surprising that she should later interpret a sunset thusly:

She sweeps •with many-colored brooms. And leaves the shreds behind; Oh, housewife in the evening "west. Come back, and dust the pond!

You dropped a purple ravelling in. You dropped an amber thread; And now you’ve littered all the East With duds of emeraldI

And still she plies her spotted brooms. And still the aprons fly. Till brooms fade softly into stars— And then I come a^way. — Emily Dickinson,

Hers •was a sensitive inheritance— one that coupled the frugal compactness of words— selective words, with a great depth of insight

into nature and the self, E o v r else does one explain this plea:

Beauty crowds me till I die. Beauty, mercy have on meI But if I expire today. Let it be in sight of thee*- — Emily Dickinson,

This sensitivity to experience is the concern of Gardner

Iiîurphy in this obser^wution:

...the first great phase in the evolution of the creator appears to be extreme sensitiveness to a specific form of experience, usually sensory; it is likely to involve sight, sound, or the muscle sense* It embodies delight in these experiences, a need for 68

more of thorn, a curiosity into their relationships; in

other ivords, v i e are dealing with sensory and activity drives. Such a person dwells more and more upon these experiences, exposes himself to them, and as far as possible controls them so that at will he can have what he wants. He tries them in combination and selects the most delightful combination; creation thus flows out of the original need for a form of experience.39

The utter delight in the beauty of nature and the seasons is thrillingly experienced by little children, and the unexpected quality of natural phenomena often serves as a high experience through which children project themselves in such a vmy that these become highly creative moments in the classroom as the following story may suggest this type of sensitivity.

Long after summer should have made a graceful exit, she tarried, and thus it •vms that even in December children's paintings in the first grade reflected this prolonged stay, for painted flowers still bloomed profusely, and the brushed-on trees %vere unseasonably verdant. Autumn somehow was obscured by Summer’s over- zealous personality. Then Summer reluctantly took her leave, and

M n t e r ’s chill and cold hurriedly busied themselves with belated duties of frost and freeze, but never once did the season indulge in the luxury of snow.

Now paintings lagged, and children seemed vm.iting for an unknovai something to happen that might stimulate their vision,

Nev/ media were introduced, but even these lacked luster. The children did, however, ask for a Clay Day— one in which they would all

39 I.Mrphy, op. cit., p. 452. 69

explore together the possibilities of clay. So the day v m s planned,

and the children, seemed hopeful of it. The morning oame~an unex­

pected, wonderful morning in which the world was enveloped in

swirling snow flakes— large, soft, airy things that had made white-

capped mushrooms of houses, trees, and oars. Mad on a morning like

this I Plans were laid aside, and, instead of preparing clay,

large sheets of colored paper and trays of paint vriLth white

pristinely prominent wore made ready. Then came the children,

"The snow I The snowi " caroled one excited child, "It finally


"It makes me feel like this I" exclaimed another as he whirled among the tables and chairs,

"Oh yes I" twirled a second and a third and then a dozen

diminut ive " snoivf lake s."

Yflien the "snow storm" had diminished, the teacher remarked,

"You've danced it very well— you swirled and twirled and were as

light as puffy feathers— snow feathers.Now, how would you show

that with paints? Can paints dance and be very, very light and

feathery, too?"

And the "Oh yes-es" came thick and fast and were tumbled

after by the "Let me show youl" demands. So the colored paper

was brought from hiding, and the children delightedly chose their

ovm hue, then scarcely before the startled paint could catch its

breath it was put to work. 70

The pictures were beautiful, the children were on tip-toe vdth delight, and no one mentioned clay though later the change in plans was discussed with the group. Snow was the delight of the day— the unexpected seasonal phenomenon which had captured the hour...and the children, too.

In this vein Lovvenfeld has critically observed: "The child must first be able to identify himself with his own experience before he can be motivated to produce creatively, or better, the urge for expression will only come through an intense experience.

Stimulating Through the Freshness of New Materials

The ancient bit of doggerel reserved for brides comes to mind: "Something old and something new..."

Children, like adults, cherish the security of old familiar things, but they joyfully anticipate the exploration of new mater­ ials, too. Nev/ness puts a fine edge on living, and it often reduces dullness or transforms it. The "newness" may be just a different way of using old materials, it may be a combination of a familiar material with a new one, or it may be an introduction to a completely new medium. But whatever the situation may be, it usually produces effervescence and an internal urge to try, to experiment, and to create.

A group of Samoan youths who had never experienced finger paint before vrero utterly enchanted with this simple medium, but

40 Lowenfeld, op. cit., p. 11» 71

"finger” vnas scarcely the adjective to couple vdth the vrord "paint," at least not as it vms explored by island students. Fingers, palms, arms, and elbows wore used with great rhythmic pleasure until some­ one remembered his unshod feet I Blue feet, black feet, red feet, and green wont slipping and sliding and oozing and gliding on the highly glazed surface of the paper. One young man, completely lost in the paint’s delight, put his whole chest in the paint— the better, he announced, to feel itl At the conclusion of their initial experimentation, the entire group raced to the reef and dashed in the ocean. Here they acted as capricious as a playful school of porpoise, 'VVhen their cleansing ritual was over, they leaped out and dried in the sun. Following this refreshing experi­ ence, they literally threw themselves into the afternoon's vfork,

"Malol JSalo fa’afetail" they exclaimed in praise at the day's end.

Praise for a new material, for a nevr zest of experiencing.

Then there was second-grade Dale in Columbus, Ohio, who one day decided to make a clown,

"■What kind of a clown. Dale?" asked his teacher,

"A big clown— really BIG— big as me, I guess,,.why, even

BIGGER 'n' meI" came the answer which almost seemed amazed at its own daring.

And Dale did make a clown "BIGGER 'n' me." He cut out colored cardboard, he ruffled crepe paper, he painted a wonderful face, and he arranged some pale blue hair in an astonishing fashion. 72

After this, he stapled his clovm together, and it grew bigger 'n*

Bigger »n’ BIGGERl

"Gee -whizl" another child remarked, "It is bigger *n* D&lel

W h y , it's as big as the teacher!" (This being an ultimate in sizel)

Dale’s stimulating new medium, was simply the size of it all.

The child who amazedly exclaims as uncontrollable blobs of wet paint slither together, "Holy Cowl I've got purpleI" is commenc­ ing the thrill of exchanging old lamps for new— of finding unknown characteristics in supposedly known materials.

Harmony is an accepted thing by the time a child is a sophis­ ticated ten or so, but watch the miraculous shine in a small child's eyes when with his own small hands he discovers two or three piano keys that sing together in untold beauty to his young ears. "ListenI lAsteni" he breathlessly commands to himself or the noar-at-hand world. Here, too, is a freshness of new material with which to interact...Sound!

There are those moments when the sheer beauty and communica­ tion of music takes the creative listener far beyond himself to new horizons of a searching, more sensitive self. Siegfried Sassoon caught that ecstacy here:

Everyone suddenly burst out singing; And I was filled with such delight Ah prisoned birds must find in freedom, THnging v/ildly across the white Orchards and dark green fields; on— on— and out of sight. 73

Everyone’s voice was suddenly lifted. And beauty oamo like the setting sun. % heart v/as shaken m t h tears, and horror Drifted away...O, but Everyone Was a bird; and the song m s wordless; the singing will never be done.

Andrews and Leader here consider the child as creative musician in a permissive environmentt

Whatever is a new experience for the child, whatever ho accomplishes with an attitude of individual inter­ pretation and a spirit of personal participation is creative— for him* Thus, a child who assists in working out square dance stops, who hears and recognizes for the first time an oboe tone, or who offers an original and constructive suggestion when learning a song is developing and showing evidence of creative spirit. Eventually, out of such activity he may bring forth ■work traditionally considered to be creative, such as musical compositions or song texts* This will be en­ couraged. But we must not believe that the child who fails to produce such work is lacking in creative urge* All individuals must build a framework of reference in knowledge and interpretation of materials before they strike out in highly original paths. Building such a framework is the task of most concern to the teacher. Encouragement, patience, the ability to point out relationships, willingness to allow attempts at new and different ways of accomplishing tasks (even though these may result in failure), and a spirit of enthusiasm are indispensable characteris­ tics of the teacher who wishes to engender a creative a-tmosphere in his classroom.

The accent these authors place on creati-ve emergence and the child’s right to discover those things which are, for him, unknowns is caught up again in this classroom story which underlines a child’s need for growth through a freshness of experience*

^^Frances M* Andrews and Joseph A. Leader, Guiding Junior- High School Pupils In Music Experiences* (Now York: Prentico-Hall, Inc., 1 9 5 3 ), pp. 5, 6* 74

”1/ïhat is the most important thing in yonr school life right novr?” was a question posed hy a third grade teacher to her group.

One very alert and inquisitive child wrote but two words on his paper: ”Kew things.” This child was asking for the rights of childhood— to grow, to stretch, to experiment, to discover, to be inspired, and to aspire through stimulation. How wise a child. Of this child and others like him it can truly be said, "Behold, this dreamer comath."

— The Bible Genesis 37: 19

To expand this concept further these paragraphs from Hopkins augment the thinking that new experiences are of great value in ful­ filling this very real aspect of human need:

Everyone has a basic biological drive for new experi­ ence in the cultural environment in which he lives. It is so necessary for maturing the self that the energy is always available unless blocked or misdirected by pre­ vious experiences. In this case the leader must help the group soothe these prior hurts so that normal energy may be re-established.

New experiences are the leaven to raise the level of old experience. Old meanings continuously wear out, but they cannot be throv/n av/ay as are old shoes. They are psychologically thrown away by reconversion into new meanings through better insight into their origin and use. TiVhen experience is stabilized by hurtful inter­ action, the creation of now meanings is limited, for new contacts with the surrounding culture are reduced. They are both the substance and the catalytic agent or psychological enzyme for remaking the old field- including the self— into a more dynamic new one.

Now experience, both internal and external, is vital to the circular concept of learning. Y/hen it is reduced 75

or denied, the energy movement is reversed because exter­ nal forces tend to control the field. Behavior degener­ ates into producing responses acceptable to others. Learning becomes the straight line relationship vrhich is

so effective in arresting maturity. N e w creative exper­ ience is constantly necessary to upbuild the self

But now experiences do not annihilate the old. Rather, old ones create a need for the ’’birthing” of new and more selective experiences. This fonvard rhythm and flow carries with it the changing and expanding currents generated from earlier emergents which adjust and re-construct themselves as individual growth needs arise. Hopkins likens this formative process to the growth factor of a tree:

Both in structure and in belmvior previous emergents affect subsequent emergents. The tree builds new structure upon old structure. The adult develops new behavior out of old behavior. At no point in the development of structure of behavior does an organism begin de novo, disregarding completely the products of prior grov/th. Some writers refer to creative emer­ gence as the whole process, for it includes the need, the materials taken in, the v/ay they are changed, the new result. Its significance cannot be overestimated.

Here, then, is the child surrounded by his environmental challenges to selective experience— personalities and groups; colors and color combinations; sound and sound patterns;-thoughts and meaning; a flow of associations and impressions combining into configurations and clamoring for awareness and preference. Out of the flux he is ever choosing, selecting, and combining— consciously

Thomas Hopkins, The Emerging Self (Hew York: Harper & Brothers, 1954), p. 170. 43 Ibid., p. 60, 76 and unconsciously— thos© "things" -with vdiich ho vn.ll commune, and the ensuing involvement with these externals will commence the exciting germination, the internalizing, the active brewing of the process through which identification will manifest itself as he, the child, responds in terms of feeling emd forming.

In considering this process something significant becomes apparent also. The "setting" cannot be considered as a static symbol— a prop, a fencing in, a rigid framework, but, rather, it is a field in vdiich and through which there is spontaneous flow and movement. Perhaps, too, the term itself— "setting"— becomes overly figurative, superfluously "noun-ish," but when the word is considered in its more active form as verb then it delineates the idea more dramatically and more forcefully. "Setting," then is that which "sets" the process in action. It "sets up" conditions which are favorable for creativity. Indeed, the "setting" becomes literally an "opening" or an "outlet" through which a child can emerge in his ovm process of on-going-ness. In this sense, the nature of the psychological setting is beautifully visualized here: "Behold, I have set before thee an open door, and no man can shut it." (Revelations 5* 8).

in retrospect, the stimuli for the creative act are not couplets composed of a mere this-ness plus a that-ness (not just the glories encountering sight and/or the delights of tonality assailing the ear, etc.), but the stimuli form a subtle and vronder- 77

fui integration of many things in a becoming state of togetherness, the snperb unity of myriad factors fusing uniquely at the sensitive

inner core of what man calls "self," and this integrated, ongoing

fusion thus becomes the well-spring from which the creative act

flows and the reconstructed and newer self emerges.

Though Barkan writes of the impact of the creative process

and the process of integrating as these two influence and affect the individual in the visual arts, the broader concept of the term

"art" can be substituted for the more delimited one in this passage,

and the meaning’s core vd.ll be retained:

The creative process does not aim to create "beauty" in the ordinary sense. At times, the concept of beauty has been used to define a full and satisfying relation­ ship. Beauty, in the usual sense, is only a secondary by-product of the value and purpose of creative experi­ ence. Fulfillment and self realization are the central purposes of the individual who is absorbed in action with an art medium. He strives to embody his ideas, feelings, and insights into expressive visual form. The coherent and unified form he creates appears beauti­ ful to the observer. Its unified coherence stems from the integration of the individual’s ideas and insights in terms of the art medium. This process of integrating is the essence of creativity in the visual arts. It is the basis for the invention of meaningful aesthetic f o r m . ^

44 Barkan, op. cit., p. 139. 78


Tho song of the saw Is true As we out the boards In two.

— James S» Tippett

First Grade Setting

A Six-Year-Old Sa^vs Out a Bird House 80)


Creative Play at the Pre-Sohool Level 82

If a man does not keep paoe with his com­ panions, perhaps it is because he hoars a different drummer* Lot him step to the music which he hears, however measured or far away.

— Henry David Thoreau 83

A Four-Year-Old Paints CHAPTER III


...To know that what is impenetrable to us really exists, manifesting itself as the highest wisdom and the most radiant beauty...

— Albert Einstein.

Reviewing Concepts Favorable for Integrative Learning in the Elementary Sohool

Perhaps the concepts most favorable for integrative living and learning in the elementary school are those held by the growing, creative teacher who, in his richness of living, has become and is yet becoming a well-integrated, well-adjusted, and realliently intel­ ligent person. For children such a teacher " a tree of life to them." In considering this comparison of teacher with tree, an old, old round comes to mind— a tune that is as wise in verse as it is frugal of phrase:

- 9

The high-er the plun tree tie ri- per the plum.

/ — i ■HP JIfjLJH % • 1 The rich-er the cob bier the blacker his thumb.

— 84 — 85

Plum trees and teachers can scarcely be termed synonymous, and yet there does seem to be a harmonious parallel between the words of this old English cannon and that object called ’’teacher.” The common denominator, it would seem, is one interpreted as grov/th*

The higher that the plum tree grov/s, the warmer grows the sun, and the ripest fruit grows at the peak of the tree's on-goingness where / the sun’s creative potential can best be utilized to convert blossoms into summer sweets «

Similarly, the more resilient the teacher is in availing him­ self of the growth-giving potentials of life, the closer will he grow into the warmth and vigor of the creative fcroe, and, thence, the fruits of his classroom will be sweet, indeed.

A teacher, so considered, involves himself with living and becoming, re-shaping and crenting— and in helping others to grow similarly* He knows, like the cobbler, that the ’’blacker his thumb” grows in the vitalness of doing, the richer will become his life-- his worlds. Potter illustrates that point here:

There is a subtle interplay between the inner life of man and the visible expression of it in creative activity. The sculptor chisels a beautiful bit of statuary and soon discovers that his own creation has had a noticeable effect on his own personality*

We are created by our own creations* Life has no greater lesson for us than that*“^®

^^Charles Francis Potter, Creative Personality (Nov/ York: Punk and Wagnalls Company, 1950), p. 93. 86

Such a creative one transcends the gnawing fear expressed by

A, B. Housmant

I, a stranger and afraid. In a world I never made.

Authoritative worlds, assumed wrlds, worlds of assigned subject matter, ^worlds of neatly packaged answers, worlds of pro-conceived

ideas, fragmentary worlds in far-flung abstract— no, these are not

"plum tree" worlds. The plum tree thrives in related, integrative, cooperative worlds— into one it sends its roots, into another it gives its grace and fruit, and toward a third it stretches in mystic symbol­

ism, but all its worlds interact to support the tree, to give it

strength and beauty, and to give it needed suttenanoe and survival benefits. The plum tree expresses mutely that which man also seeks

from life— cooperation.

But how shall the cooperative, the integrative, the creative teacher be known? Probably best by his actions— his ways of working, his ways of meeting and solving problems, his ways of opening, ex­ panding, and relating worlds, and his ways of living and loving.

Such a one knows well what Ashley-Montagu wrote here* "The problem

of modern man is the problem of human relations— of man's relations to his fellow-men and to himself

Such a teacher is ooncerned with becoming an out-going person

much as was another man years ago who implored his I S & k e r t

46 Ashley-Montagu, op. cit., p. 12. 87

...Grant that I may not so much seek To be consoled, as to console; To be understood, as to understand; To be loved, as to love. For it is in giving that we receive...

— St. Francis of Assisi.

A contemporary teacher speaks here concerning the matter of giving: "And, oh my friend, never fear to give your thoughts awayI

Save but one idea for your very own— one to grow on, but give the rest away. Then there’s room for growth— now grovrth,^'

Hughes Ifearns remembers another teacher vrfio gave his students the gift of his warm personality:

It ivas a casual word, he said, at the morning greet­ ing; it "was heart-felt reading aloud to a group; it was making a life business of "looking and prying’i it was sensing true feeling in those before him; it was faith in the human spirit; so young Jordan talked of trivial matters, for there are no adequate words to explain the greater magic, the influence of a gifbod sensitive per­ sonality

Barkan considers the guidance aspect of the teacher’s role in this statement:

To help children to develop their creative poten­ tialities teachers need to load them into the reciprocal process of dealing with their feelings, ideas, and materials. Children need help in selecting madia that are appropriate for their ideas and their manipulative capacities. Above all, they need the encouragement, security, and responsible freedom to grow aware of them­ selves in relation to things outside themselves.^9

47 Leland B. Jacobs, comment made during an informal conversa­ tion, summer of 1949. ^^Hughes Jffearns, Tho Creative Adult (New York: Double day, Doran and Company, 1940), p. 209. 49 Barkan, op. cit., p. 148. 88

And the oroative teacher sees creation in all problem-solving situations :

Some would, wrongly^ limit creating to additions to the civilization, and accordingly would say that only the very gifted can create. On the contrary, as al­ ready suggested, every problem in life calls for oreativenessj for every conscious devising of a solution to a problem is of psychologic necessity an act of creation, and this no matter how loivly or exalted the problem may be. A housewife devising a more pleasing arrangement of furniture or a statesman trying to avert World War III— each is engaged in a creative act .50

And he integrates the artistic method into all phases of living and learning:

The cultivation of the artistic impulse, the artistic mood and the artistic method is seen as something of uni­ versal value rather than as a mere specialty for the rarely gifted. Education, in our times, should conse­ quently seek to encourage creative qualities in children, not only through experience with the arts as commonly recognized, but also in relation to every type of activity.51

A similar thought was expressed long before by a teacher with a crusader's zeal:

"And do many of your children go in for Art after­ wards?" we queried. "Not as a rule. They go into all sorts of professions and trades. That's quite right— that's "Mdrnt I like, I like to think of Art coloring all departments of life rather than being a separate profession." — report of conversation with Professor Cizek.

And do we mirror our own belief in creativity in others— in

^^%lliam H. Kilpatrick, "Creative Teaching," (Educational Leadership, December, 1952), pp. 138-139. ®^Commission on Teacher Education, Teachers For Our Tiims (American Council on Education, Washington, D. C., 1944), p. 73. 89 children? Bagan smd Steadier hold the mirror here: ”Creativeness, once encouraged.. .'Will reflect itself in the child and the process B2 of creating will quicken his interests and enrich his outlook.”

Deldma points out the need for a thorough knowledge of child development and for an understanding spirit on the part of the teacher: ’’Primarily, of course, such teachers must understand children and be sensitive and responsive to their needs. They must be creative and inventive and resourceful; they must be stimulating, flexible, and fond of adventure.

The teacher’s role in the use of creative materials is expres­ sed by Ifearns in the following passage*

The teacher’s part in making use of creative material is educationally of enormous importance. From his initial act in starting the thing going, he is in command through to the end, not noticeably so, not detrimentally so, but always as creative artist manipulating the volatile, eager spirits before him at every step forward. TA/ithout him there would bo no steps at all; without him the group and individuals would not move forward.®^

Baruch continues in the discussion of children and materials with these thoughts:

The wise teacher sees that materials are there and in good condition. She encourages children to use them creatively and independently. She realizes that just as a sculptor never becomes bored with clay, just so the child with all of the materials that he can pliably

®^Mlliam B, Bagan and C. B. Stendler, M p d e m Elementary Curriculum (Hew York: The Dryden Press, 1953), p. 457. ®®Agnes DeLima, The Little Red Sohool House (Now York: The Macmillan Company, 1944), p. 199. 54 Mearns, The Creative Adult, op. cit. 90

utilize never becomes bored, for he keeps finding varying and ever more refined sorts of usage

Snygg and Combs believe that the paramount qualities of all teachers should be these*

But above all, they must have a genuine respect for the potentialities and personal imrth of each student and a corresponding interest in and sympathy with his strivings for self-maintenance and self-enhancement.,, the effective teacher must be not a storehouse of knowledge nor a master technician, but a kind of person; a happy, intelligent, adequate personality.^6

And finally, a prophetic voice speaks here*

The teacher who walks in the shadow of the temple among his followers, gives not of his wisdom but rather of his faith and his lovingness.

If he is indeed wise he does not bid you enter the house of his wisdom, but rather leads you to the thres­ hold of your own mind. — Kahil Gibran from: The Prophet

These, then, are choice "plums"— the fruit of some trees that dared to grow high.

Experience is the backbone of a program fostered by a teacher who seeks to help children find full and insightful explorations in the process of honest learning and creating. The creative teacher knows, too, that for each child the experiencing will be approached differently and uniquely— even as children themselves differ one from another.

^^Dorothy Baruch, Parents and Children Go To Sohool (Chicago* Scott Foresman, 1939), p. 369. ^^Donald Snygg and Arthur W. Combs, Individual Behavior, (Few York* Harper Brothers, 1949), p. 243. 91

Jorsild writes of this imique self and its seleotivo operations here:

There is a oontinuous impact between the self and the flow of experiences involved in the process of living and learning at sohool. The learner perceives, inter­ prets, accepts, resists, or rejects what he meets at school in the light of the self system he has within him. In the healthy course of the development of the self, one is involved in a continuing process of assimilation and integration of now experiences, new discoveries con­ cerning one’s resources, one’s limitations, and one's relations with oneself and with o t h e r s *^7

In the day's work, children often have many experiences, but those iirtiioh are most meaningful for him are those defined here by

Barkan as a creative experience: "Creative experience is an organic process. An individual sees something; he perceives its meaning; he reacts to it; he organizes his ftinotions in relation to it; he acts in terms of it."®®

But if a child is exposed to an experience which is essen­ tially creative in character and if he does not perceive its meaning, is tho fault that of the child? No fault, Kelley points out, but a

lack of prior experience:

...we do not get our perceptions from the things around us, but...the perceptions come from us. Since they do not come from the immediate environment (the present), and obviously cannot come from the future, they must coma from the past. If they come from the past, they must be based on experience*59

®^Jersild, op. cit., p. 14* ^^Barkan, op. cit., p. 65, ®^Earl C. Kelley, Education For \Vhat Is Real (New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1947), p. 25* 92

No t is all creative learning happy learning. Some experiential challenges make the child aware that he must relinquish complacent, comfortable ideas, and if he is to accept the new learning as his own he must change. Such change is often resisted strenuously by the self because it involves an element of pain. Jersild appraises this type of situation in this paragraphs

VJhenever a pupil is in a situation where he might learn something which goes against a view of himself to which he is strongly committed, his defenses will come into play, even if such learning might potentially improve his way of life. For this reason, learning something that really makes a difference to oneself, in the sense that there is a revision or change in the self concept, is likely to be painful. Some of the most valuable learnings are the most painful.®®

The more a child experiences through constructive oreativeness the more resilient he will become to further experiencing, and the richer his on-going experiences become the more surely will the child’s potential self emerge.

Providing enough time for a child to experience deeply and at his own developmental level is one of the great responsibilities of the teacher. Mauree Applegate speaks of this vital need in develop­ ing a creative language arts program with children:

If you want your children to write verse, you must take plenty of time to appreciate the little things that happen every day. Noticing the tree that has seemed to change color in the night; stopping to look at how the clouds are racing through the sky; noting how the shadows lengthen under the trees in the after-

60 Jersild, op. cit., pp. 19-20. 93

noon; watching together two lady robins gossip as they splash together in the bird bath--these are the little things that cause children to appreciate what is going on around them. 61

Natalie Robinson Cole emphasizes the same thing as vital if the arts program is to be meaningful:

Children cannot create out of a vacuum. They must have something to say and be fired to say it. More time spent in experiencing richly what they are going to paint will bear fruit in faster outpouring of the child’s picture vdien he gets started*®^

And what has been said of writing and painting is equally true of other activities fostered by schools.

On-going experiences which modifj'- roles are the important T/ork and problem-solving features of an essentially vital school, for as

Cantril observes:

All observations of man indicate that most people tAio are attuned to anything approximating normal life will not be satisfied with their role unless it offers some potentiality for one experience to lead to another, for change to occur in some apparent direction....It is this characteristic to vAiich the naturalist Coghill referred when he said that his philosophy of life was "not of being, but of becoming; not of life, but of living."6b

That the child is a social being who experiences best that which he shares with others is later pointed out by Cantril in these words : "It should be particularly emphasized that the satisfaction

' 6^1Lauree Applegate, Helpiag Children .Trite (Scranton, Pennsylvania: International Textbook Compai^',' Ï949), p. 17. ^^Natalie Robinson Cole, The Arts in the Classroom (New York: The John Day Company, 1940), p. 3. ^^Hadley Cantril, "The "VAiy" of Llan’s Experience (Nevf York: The lÆaomillan Company, 1950), p. 29. 94 sought in oxporienoe is a satisfaction -within the particular culture 64 of group of v/hich the individual is a participating member."

Education, then, must provide that rich, leading-forth environ­ ment in which the child and groups of children are creatively absorbed in various forms, kinds, and degrees of meaningful experiences which over change and vary as they are assimilated and re-worked to provide and to express those vital processes which are requisite for living and becoming.

Dewey frames his definition of education in this manner:

"We thus reach a technical definition of education: It is that recon­ struction or reorganization of experience which adds to the meaning of experience, and which increases the ability to direct the course of subsequent experience."®^

And vAiero shall teachers discover these needful experiences?

Do they coma in dehydrated pellets that expand with a little soaking?

Are they manufactured like a stew-kettle? Can they be purchased in pre-packaged lots for uniform distribution? Can they be borrowed from one’s neighbor? Are they perishable, or may they be used repeatedly?

Dewey, the exponent of experience, gives this ansiver: "Impulsions are the beginnings of complete experience because they proceed from need; from a hunger and demand that belongs to the organism as a whole

64 Ibid., p. 30. 65 John Dewey, Democracy and Education (New York: The tlaomillan Company, 1924), p. 89. 95 and that can be supplied only by instituting definite relations

(active relations, interactions) with the environment.”®®

In a later passage Dewey further builds upon this idea:

Impulsion from need starts an experience that does not know where it is going; resistance and check bring about the conversion of direct foi*ward action into re-flection; Tfhàt is turned back upon is the relation of hindering con­ ditions to what the self possesses as working capital in

virtue of prior experiences. A s the energies thus in­ volved reinforce the original impulsion, this operates more circ*mspectly "with insight into end and method. Such is the outline of every experience that is clothed ivith meaning.®^

Zirbes speaks convincingly of the importance of experiences, the kinds of experiences, and the sharing of experiences which are meaningful in the lives of children:

Children need experiences because every action and reaction is organized into the nervous system. How well they learn anything, how readily they recall it for use in further learning or living depends on the relation of new experiences to experiences already lived.

Experiences must be selected and guided to moot and serve the need for ever clearer meanings and sounder con­ cepts of the processes and relationships involved in social living. They must give impetus to observation and imagination; to inquiry, inference and investigation in order that insights are deepened and concerns are awakened.

Children need experiences vdth other children. They need to learn the ways of democracy through experiences in group living in which the common good is the matter of common concern, . . . such experiences are richer and more productive when they have content and prooesa v a l u e s . G8

®^John Dewey, Art as Experience (Hew York: Minton, Balch & Company, 1934), p. 58» ®'^Ibid., p. 60. ®®Laura Zirbes, "Children Heed Experiences," (Childhood Education, Vol. 25, October, 1948), p. 51. 96

It is the "whole self that comes to school, it is the whole self that seeks vital experiences, it is the whole self that meets and. tries to solve real and experiential problems, and it is the whole self that acts, re-acts and interacts in varying degrees to, with, and vrf.thin its environment. Vhat the child experiences, that he becomes. Perhaps such a belief is expressed most effectively in these few lines:

There was a child went forth

every day.

And the first object he look’d


that object he became.

And that object became part

of him for the day

or a certain part

of the day.

Or for many years

or stretching cycles of years.

— Walt Vhitman

Discovering Hoiv These Channels Can Be Opened, Ebcpanded, and Related

Relating Creativity and Groiyth

Perhaps channels of experiencing and vital discovery can be further opened, expanded, and related when the school becomes a place vdiere children develop growing joys instead of growing pains. 97

Maoh of this condition will hinge on how vrell teachers understand and act on vhat they understand to be the developmental readiness of children both as groups and as unique individuals. Here are three statements by Barkan that point up this thought:

Growth through creative experience proceeds through natural developmental stages. Children grow through stages of neuro-musoular control. They develop capaci­ ties to see and to co-ordinate their bodily movements, and to manage skillfully the manipulation of materials* Children also develop through stages of conceptual understanding. Beginning with themselves as the center of their universe, they grow in their understanding of the relationships among themselves and other people, things, space, and time.

A child's neuro-muscular control and his conceptual understanding interact one with another. His ability to move about and manipulate objects enables him to l e a m to conceptualize his experiences— to organize materials with a purpose.®^

And here the author sees value changes occurring with developmental growing and changing: "The dramatic changes in the developmental life of a child are accompanied by the quest for new values....Continuous experience in dealing with new creations can be helpful to children and youth in meeting the impact of the dramatic yet natural changes 70 in their lives." Creativeness as a concomitant factor of growth is considered here:

Young children when respected and encouraged are naturally creative. Their creativity is...a concomitant of the process of growth and development. Physical and social growth are nurtured by creative exploration...If a developing child is

69 Barkan, op. cit., p. 57. 70 Ibid., p. 82. 98

denied opportiinities for continuous purposeful activity his image of himself and the relationships he sees be- tT/ïoen himself and his environment become distorted*.• • Improved curriculum practices and improved teaching lead a child toward expanded insight and maturity.71

Some Aspects of Curriculum

The curriculum practices which the preceding author speaks of might be bettered if creativeness were to be measured in teims of the child's gains and not by the static characteristioa of a subject- centered measuring stick or by the timing of a clock.

In her book. The Arts in the Classroom, Natalie Robinson Cole states* "Creative writing cannot go by the clock any more than 72 creative painting can," and at another point she alsoilso maintains «73 that* "...a child's picture travels on its interest*’

It might be added that any other absorbing activity travels much the same way...if permitted, but interest is still considered by too many schools as being a whipping boy for Time. The yardstick of

"what must be done" comes first, and then, if there's Time, interest can squeeze in too* Such old patterns are too much in existence yet.

Schools and schoolman need to do a little creative exploring; they need to learn p a t t e m ’ on a now scale— such as Hart says here:

"We need an education in problems, not in answers. Wo need to l eam

'^^Ibid., p. 215. 72 Cole, op. Pit », p. 115, Ibid., p. 5. 99

74* pattern-making. Schools merely give us the stories of old patterns."

Creativity— Au Integral Part of the liVhole

Schools also need to relinquish the idea that the creative

process is only skin-deep— a little paint and a little powder, a high note or two to add glitter, and a dance step here and there to glamor­

ize the whole*

Teachers, too, are sometimes amiss. The "specialness" or

"regular-ness" of their teaching role is a narrowing factor that

often speaks too loudly of subject-matter and less of rich experiencing;

it carries over-tones of fixed time schedules and less of meeting the

needs of children; and it has implications of a divided duality- whole cloth on the one hand and the superfluous frills on the other.

Barkan places the creative process into its fuller context


Participation in the creative process— offers opportun­ ities for individuals to extend a portion of themselves into an organically unified structure. This extension is the essence of the aesthetic experience*...

Creativity is not reserved for artistic activity alone. It functions in all human activity when people seek to move beyond the limitations of the present moment and to­ ward their forvnrd aspirations.

Aad this same author considers the arts here as they might well function in general education*

74 , Joseph Hart, Mind In Transition (New York* Covici, Friede, and Company, 1938), p. 362. ^^Barkan, op. cit., p. 146. 100

In the general education of children the arts offer unique potentialities for creative grovrbh and develop­ ment •...The meaning of experience in the arts, although primarily the concern of art educators, is of vital significance to all others contributing to the general education of c h i l d r e n . 76

Robert Frost so forcefully expressed this need to "spill over" beyond the meager limits of "your" or "my" existence and into the richness of plural worlds when he vo’ote: "Something there is that doesn’t love a wall...," and that fact is as true of walls in the curriculum as it is true of orchard walls. If there is to be greater creative expression, schools must rase useless, meaningless walls to give education greater meaning and flow.

Teacher Resiliency

When they permit themselves to become more resilient to its challenges, teachers will discover the joys of creativity in the classroom. As teachers radiate more of a truly creative spirit, they also generate more of the necessary permissive warmth that in­ spires children to respond with greater trust and confidence. One writer sees this cycle ensuing:

...the teacher will find that children’s painting, clay work, design, dancing, and writing are all the same undernearth. There is the same marvolous creative abil­ ity within the child and the same need of confidence and faith to set it free.

l%en children are engaged in what they love to do, the barriers are down. The teacher has access to the child

76 Ibid., preface— p. v. 101

v/ithin« It is th© attitudes w e instil that make our job -north -mhile.

Only as we build the child through giving joy and faith and confidence are ne building his creative arts. IVhen there is joy and faith, there also is the good picture, or -writing, or dance. It works like magic— - the perfect formula.

Working -with these fundamental premises the teacher will be evolving her own approach, her own moans of pre­ sentation, contributing from her own background of teach­ ing experience and understanding.

Through giving the children confidence, the teacher will gain confidence, through sharing their troubles her own heart will become lighter, through enriching their experience, she also will be enriched.?"^

Miat greater challenge to grow than this?

Child as Planner

Each traveler— be he a mental or physical voyager— kno-ws his own pace-making limits and his own preferences concerning various modes of conveyance. Thus, by permitting the child to help set up his own educational itinerary and to name his choice of vehicle gives greater joy to the learning adventure than if it were merely a teacher- planned ja-unt. Two authors speak of learner participation in these consecutive statements. Barkan says: "To learn -well the learner should participate in setting his ovm purposes and goals.

And Kelley observes: ""When one works in response to his own purposes, the reward for success or the punishment for failure lies

77 Cole, op. cit., p. 137. 78 Barkan, op. cit., p. 13• 102

79 in the act itself, and in the good he had hoped to achieve.”

Nor does this negate the right of the teacher to give the plodding "boy with a cart" a special "bequest of wings" when possi­ ble, for it is a teacher's right and joy to be able to lift the

sights and expand the vision of the child when the latter shows

evidence of readiness.

By such simple acts as sharing, by taking the child into con­

sideration, and by permitting the child to establish his own sights

and goals does creativity commence to function more broadly in the


A School Family

One man who greatly enjoys flowers, but who cannot distinguish

one variety from another by name refers to the species in his garden

as being Idttle Burpees, Medium-Sized Burpees, and Big Burpees, The

lovely thing about the garden is the way all the various "Burpees"

grow side by side in a delightfully heterogeneous fashion.

Perhaps there should be more "Burpee" planning in schools.

Times vdien little, and medium-sized, and big children can work to­

gether, plan together, create together, play together, and grow to­

gether, Suoh cross-grade organization elicits those creative in­

sights that children often miss otherwise. Perhaps, too, there should

79 Kelley, op, cit., p« 69, 103 be more times -when adults share with children in both creative ad­ ventures and play-party activities.

Schools that yearly cluster children of just one age together

and keep them so isolated for nine months out of every year do not allow for the natural spilling over or the running together that

life seems to have intended. By such unnatural fencing in, much understanding, respect, and stimulation is lost among children. It would seem, therefore, that if creativity is not to become depart­ mentalized by age levels, schools must make provision for more times when children of all ages may create and commune together.

Suoh heterogeneous planning will also tend to break down much undesirable focusing on any one age group. It is only when

children of one age of development are lumped together that their

characteristics are magnified— and often to their disadvantage.

"VVhen children are sensitized by others of varying ages, abilities,

and backgrounds, theirs will be a richer creative experience in


Of this, Jersild says:

...the more fully members of the school family realize the meaning of selfhood, the greater will be the affinity among them. The more genuinely a person at any level of ago or social prestige realizes his own selfhood, the greater capacity he has to relate himself to others. If he is the finest scholar on the faculty he can relate himself to the most poorly endowed student, for the com­ mon humanity both of them share and the kinds of emotional experiences both have known far outweigh the difference in their intellectual stature. The teacher in his forties who realizes the implications of this concept can be sensitive to the sorrows, hostilities, hopes, and dis­ appointments of his junior high school class, although they are separated from him by a wide span of years. He 104

■will be sensitive not simply by virtue of superior child child study methods; ho will understand his pupils be­ cause he understands himself. If such a teacher is from an upper middle class home ho ■will be able to appreciate the feelings of pupils from "the wrong side of the tracks." A railroad can be a socio-economic boundary line* but emotions are not bound by it. Pear in the rich is the same as fear in the poor. Children know acceptance and rejection on both sides of the railroad.®^

When children intermingle creatively, they begin to be more sympathetic, iivith the problem Ashley-ÎJbntagu expresses here : "... 8X every human being is a problem in search of a solution."

Yflaen the size of it all is used to augment creativity rather than diminish it, then schools are learning as did the ■wise man in this quotations

...the ■wise man looks into space, and does not regard the small as too little, nor the great as too big; for he knows that there is no limit to dimensions* ——Lao—tse.

Space for Growth

Children need to grow in a place vdiero there is room enough to stretch. Not just space enough to flex growing arms and legs, but a place where the whole self can project— can soar--can shine I

Creativity offers children that upward push that gives the boost to reach beyond the tentative boundaries of self. This reach­ ing beyond, this responding awareness to creativity's urgent rap on the inner door, this persistent seeking— these are the factors which

Jersild, op. cit., p. 33. 81 ' Ashley-Iifontagu, op. oit., p. 12. 105 give rise to a more radiant self— a growing self— a self whioh is becoming by "allowing the imprisoned glory to escape."

A child needs space— he must have room to push back the four walls— to make journeys all his own.

I said in my heart, "I am sick of four walls and a ceiling# I have need of the sky, I have business with the grass# I will up and get me away where the hawk is wheeling. Lone and high. And the slow clouds go by." — Richard Hovey

The Teacher's Part

The most important person to open creativity's doors wider is the teacher, for it rests in the hands of this adult to fan or to snuff out the true and valid spark of a child's creative nature#

These, then are some concerns for every teacher's thoughtfulness :

To understand the physiological and psychological growth sequences and growth needs of children.

To respect the uniqueness of the child and the value of his own Tivork and to remember Lowenfeld's three warnings: "Don't impose your own images on a ohildl...Never prefer one child's creative work 82 over that of anotherI...Never let a child copy anythingI"

To work with children justly and honestly and to temper one’s personality with a generous sprinkling of humor.

82 Lovrenfeld, op. cit., pp. 3-4# 106

To be resilient to new ideas, media, children, and other


To be pleasantly available to a child or gross lots of

children whenever it is possible, and to give them the needed secur­

ity of feeling that there is enough for all— enough of time, teacher, materials, and ivarm camaraderie*

To knowhow to "get under a child’s skin" without getting out

of his good graces.

To be sensitive to the "how-muclmess" that can be expected of

children and the "too-littleness" that should be avoided*

To be a part of the resourceful background that functions in

a child's active foreground*

To provide a setting rich in vital opportunities in which

children of one age or many may make intensive explorations involv­

ing self-discovery, self-reliance, persistence, enthusiasm, intel­

lectual honesty, intellectual adventurousness, and new appreciations*®

To help a child evaluate himself and his work (as well as

various stages of it) with progressive insights*

To introduce new and strange media at intermittent intervals

to stimulate children’s curiosity and to pose new problems*

To prize even a "Blessed be nothing" state of material lack

83 J* Marray Lee and Dorris May Lee, The Child and His Curri­ culum (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1950), p* 588. 107 in the olassroom, and to accept this and other problems in education as invigorating challenges to be met and solved inventively.

To avoid giving children assigned problems, teacher-made problems, and problems with pre-cut solutions, or those that Dewey referred to as "anesthetic":

Things happen, but they are neither definitely in­ cluded nor decisively excluded; we drift. % yield according to external pressure, or evade and compromise. There are beginnings and cessations, but no genuine initiations and concludings. One thing replaces another, but does not absorb it and carry it on. There is experi­ ence, but so slack and discursive that it is not ex- perience. Needless to say, such experiences are anesthetic.

To realize that as the child pushes open the door of one experience he will be inviting himself to further adventures, for the doors in a child’s on-goingness are the evolving square root of his human equation.

To treasure a child's vision.

The Child's Part

A child, too, has standards for working, for meeting and solving problems, and for growing creatively. Often these standards are groped for and felt rather than stated, but perhaps these are a few of them:

To find out about "things" they feel, how they sound, how they move, how they work, how they fit with other things, and

■what different tilings can be done "with them.

84 John De'wey, Art As Experience, p. 40. 108

To find out if "I" can use them.

To find out if ”1” can make or do something iwith them*

To find the words and the desire to talk about the thing that "I" have made and to muster the courage to evaluate it honestly*

To have the freedom to ask the "why" and the "what" and the

"how," but to be just as willing to help find the answers*

To enjoy the fun and worth of working and sharing in a group*

To know the sheer thrill of success after having been caught up in an involved problem.

To have the right of making choices for one’s self, and to be big enough to accept the responsibilities that accompany such choices*

To learn to respect tools and a work area and to care for

those things in an acceptable way*

To be able to use creative materials in practical ways and

to use it successfully in satisfying creative leisure periods.

To have a growing awareness of things which are beautiful, well made, and functionally fine.

To develop the inventiveness of using familiar media in new ways and with new purposes*

To bo sensitive to using the best media for expressing the

things to be created.

To have courage to tackle a problem that does not appear to

have any visible solution.

To accept changes which occur in the progress of one's work* 109

To have a grooving desire to expect better things from one*a self*

The Program’s Part

To provide a variety of materials ■which are both: resilient

and resistant in varying degrees, t v r o dimensional and three dimen­ sional, time consuming and less time consuming, pliable and rigid, mobile and stationary, real and imaginary....

To provide time for stimulating, problem-solving experiences for children in a happy, social environment.

To give children opportunities for making choices, for learn­ ing now appreciations, for planning and working in meaningful groups, and for evaluating the work of the group and of personal contribu­ tions .

For developing originality, imagination, and new ways of thinking in and with children and for providing outlets for their special interests.

To give children the immense security of being able to achieve creatively and to further endow them with an on-going bequest in search of beauty.

To give children an education in such miracles as those visioned here: 210 inihy, "Who makes nruoh of a miracle? As to me I know of nothing else but miracles, VJhether I walk the streets of Manhattan, Or dart my sight over the roofs of houses toward the sky. Or wade with naked feet along the beach just in the edge of the water. Or stand under trees in the woods. Or talk by day with any one I love. Or sit at table at dinner with the rest. Or look at strangers opposite me riding in the car. Or watch honey-bees busy around the hive of a summer forenoon. Or animals feeding in the fields. Or birds, or the v/onderfulness of insects in the air. Or the wonderfulness of sundown, or of stars shining so quiet and bright. Or the exquisite, delicate, thin curve of the new moon in spring; These with the rest, one and all, are to me miracles. The whole referring, yet each distinct and in its place* To me every hour of the light and dark is a miracle. Every cubic inch of space is a miracle. Every square yard of the surface of the earth is spread with the same. Every foot of the interior swarms with the same. To me the sea is a continual miracle. The fishes that swim— the rocks— the motion of the waves, the ships with men in them, 'V'Vhat stranger miracles are there?

— YiTalt v'ihitman* Ill


Design 4-year-old y \ #0

People 4-year-old 113 G

Playing Outsido in Teinter 5-year-old

The Big Snow 5-year-old CHAPTER IV


In vain are musty morals taught in schools. By rigid teachers and as rigid rules, liVhere virtue with a frowning aspect stands, And frights the pupils with her rough commands. — Benjamin Franklin

Reviewing Concepts Unfavorable to Integrative Learning in the Elementary School

Concepts Postered by Soma Teachers

It isn't as if the blocking concepts fostered by some teachers were viciously spoken, hotly debated, or even verbally and vehemently defended— though, of course, all three may be true, but it is rather, that these inerbnesses, blockings, and frictions that cause creati­ vity to miss are revealed daily in classroom action.

Sometimes imitative action is the friction— action that repeats what has been done in the sacredness of years past. Again, it may be action to conceal frustration, and this may reveal itself through a coldness of action, through bombastic action, or a do-as-I-

8ay action. Not too infrequently is the lack of action the classroom block, and it is through lethargy and a quiet, "sit-still" inertia that this reversed action becomes apparent*

In thinking back through the mental albums of former class­ rooms, perhaps a scene like this will nudge the memory:

- 114 - 115

Behind her back she was called "The Queen Bee," but the exact year of her surreptitious and regal ascent had never been officially documented in the school’s mildevred archives. The royal presence was best characterized by brightly rouged cheeks, a tense mouth, beady and all-seeing eyes, an inclination toward garish prints and pointed shoes, and a very and unswerving attitude about ag-l things «

Tho "hive" usually contained about thirty assoi*ted third grade workers who anaemically sipped the watered and meager honey of the textbook-workbook fare from that restricted field called "seat."

True, the designer of the desks had given his product movable and adjustable characteristics, but the teacher’s straight-rowed mind had bolted down any and all suoh activities. Vfhen there vra.s need to adjust the desk-surfaces for penmanship class, this -was done in a

"One, open; two, adjust; three, stopi" cadence. For all ordinary

T/riting, however, no adjustment was made, and this, in itself, was unfortunate as the children sat for half the day so high in their seats that their toes became prickly and numb from a lack of communi­ cation with the grimmy, oil-soaked floor#

The elevation of the children was in direct relation to the fact that they were sitting on their workbooks, and this "setting hen" system may have allowed for educational osmosis to have transpired

(though no research was ever conducted along this vector), but it did for a certainty lend itself to a curious sort of regimentation.

During the morning, the teacher would announce in clear, round tones,

"Workbook one I" and with one accord the first and warmest workbook 1X6

■was promptly surfaced. The morning droned on until all the workbooks had thus been properly aired and incubated#

Discipline was effectively achieved through a well-organized and thoroughly stigmatized caste system. The "Blessed" sat in chronological and pristine splendor in the first row nearest the door «

This location perhaps symbolized that these chosen ones were nearest

to the pedagogical pearly-gates. R o w s two and three were occupied by the lesser and sub-dominant lights of the classroom, and then there was row four— the stifling row nearest the sputtering radiators and farthest from the dirt-mosaiced windows. Here in the heat stewed and occasionally slumbered the Hardys, the Hollys, and the T/Vinkum- plexes— the left-over young from a rapidly diminishing tow-path society that had once flourished in bawdy prolifioness along the historic river. To disobey or to fail in one*s lessons meant to sit among these "untouchables" of third grade society, and only tears, breathy sobs, and convulsive promises of zealous work could convince the teacher of righ-teous repentence and thence to a change of seat.

Ability was clearly branded, and the class was divided into three reading sections— the Daisy One's, the Daisy Two's, and the

Violets, The impeccable starchiness of the Daisy One group -was never quite equalled by those so obviously labeled as defective "seconds," and the Violets not only shrunk but were shrunk froml

To the victors also went the spoils of carrying messages, opening doors, passing out materials, greeting visitors, and they also 117 knew the joyous privilege of being named "loader" in choosing "sides"

for spelling bees and geography matches.

In classwork there were tvro daily orgies to be dreaded and hurdled— the Questions and the Drill. The Questions were perhaps so awe-inspiring because each one was coupled with a formidable and exact sentence response known as the Answer. These had to be pro­ nounced loudly, glibly, and in rapid fire delivery after first leap­ ing to one’s numbed feet and standing at rapt attention supported by a covÆirdly spine that pleaded to become a vdshbone. The Answers wore generally best known by the Teacher and the pious Daisy One group, but if a response was incorrectly given it had to be repeated cor­ rectly in a ceremony that dutifully wedded the dazed reporter to a state of infinite woe#

But the "hive" had moments of happier activity, too. Several years earlier a magazine called "The Teacher’s Friend" had genuinely inspired this third grade abecedarian to taste the alien sweets of the project method, and each year thereafter the children lived dangerously for six mildly savage weeks as American Indians I Of course, the Chiefs, Princesses, and Medicine Lien were the Daisy One’s in pallid but feathered disguise, and the Braves were the arrow-toting

Daisy Two’s, but even the Violets in their fringed gunny-sack garb knew a hint of some vague primordial joy.

Just as surely as Autumn meant Indians, so Christmas meant

Ehybhm Band, The boy band instruments had been purchased years before

for the joint use of the entire school, but in some mystic fashion 118 they had ultimately become the sole property of the third grade.

From Thanksgiving to Christmas the cymbals crashed and the drums banged in fearful ferocity every afternoon at two, and at some auspicious time near mid-December the Queen Bee made a royal journey to the office of the Superintendent of Schools for the express mission of informing that gentleman that "Her Group was


This announcement was actually used as a verbal nudge to notify

the pedagogical potentate that the "Time v r a s Now" when he must find a suitable audience for the percussive musicians of the third grade.

Usually the answer came from one of three reluctant sources— the Kiwanis Club to which the superintendent belonged, the Browsers

Club to which the superintendent’s wife belonged, or the County hom*o whose members no longer had the strength to resist. So it ims that the highly gilded rhythm band all bedecked in teacher-made crepe- paper hoods and snoods sallied forth and smote the December air vriLth

a right good vengeance. The high point of the program v i a a the final selection that quavered in thin childish trebles to the triangle's off-beat accompanimentÎ "Round and round the Christmas tree, sing and dance so joyous vrel"

This animated ditty vra.s resoundingly and stolidly rendered by the group Tdiich stood vroodenly motionless and bearing no visible signs of Yuletide cheer or charm. Promptly thereafter the children jerkily bovred to the spotty applause and concluded their program. 119

This performance was always duly recorded the folloiving week in the County Sun under the banner caption "Rhythm Band Plays Again."

To make certain that the children’s names were listed correctly, the teacher generally wrote the newspaper commentary herself, and, therefore, it -was not surprising that her name, like one Abou Ben

Adhem’s, led all the rest— and in the same splendor*

Spring oozed its way up through Vfinter' s wearisome sludge, but it brought new problems in its wake. This was that time of year when the second graders had to be unofficially reviewed and thoroughly sized-up before their fall advent into third grade. The second- graders were always a weighty concern, for their teachers were of a curious species plainly stamped as modern educators. llo good would come from the group vfork in the second grade, to say nothing of those hamsters and parakeets, planning periods, experience charts, and trips here, there, and everyvvhere 1 % 1 1 , next year there’d have to be an end to all this monkey-business, and that included paint dribbling, clay polcing, and that noisy board pounding foolishness.

Those hands would learn to dutifully lift, and as third graders those children would stand to recite. Yes, there was a certain smarting irascibility about those second grade teachers. V/hy, one had even made rhythm band instruments with her second grade class this past year* Poaching ideas like that vms not a thing to be lightly oounr* tenanoed. Would the Indian leit motif of the third grade be pilfered next? 120

The second and more formidable problem ivas the matter of the

fourth grade teachers. If the third grade class passed on up to

Augusta Grace, the old order would remain constant and all would be

T/ell, but if the class was delivered into the hands of Emma, the

piper Tfould certainly be for paying. Poor Emma* Her rows of seats

vrere filled ivith a hodge-podge of heterogeneous humanity. She

never once considered the catastropic results of placing a Mnkumplex

next to the august person of an Aldrich, and at sixty-two years of

age you would have thought she would have learned better, but not

Etamal Her only rule was a golden one. "Oh woll," thought the

keeper of the yet third grade bees, "if it takes her a month to get them settled dovm, it’s her own fault and it serves her right."

Yes, the year was all over but the shouting. The teacher had

had her parent reports made out for three weeks now (the children

never changed anyway), and the many pictures she put up every fall were finally down once again, and they wore carefully boxed and

labeled. The cat-tails and the bittersweet bouquet had yet to be

discarded, and Barry was to take home the dusty geranium on the

back ledge next Monday. He had said, rather cautiously to be sure,

that his Mother had one that bloomed. Even the books which had been

erased and mended wore ready to be stored. Indeed, another year

was dragging its feet out the door— just like Toddy Hardy thought

the teacher. Ah wall, it can’t loiter long, she mused, and she

closed the door firmly on another Friday. 121

Teaching is, or so it vrould seem to bo, somevjhat parallel to a religion. I'ftio the gods of the classroom are, determines the tributes and/or the singed and sacrificial offerings to be proffered up, and the interesting thing about a sacrificial offering is that the one who gets scorched on so high an altar is rarely the publican vdio chants so lavishly of his self-less devotion to the almighty.

In the tale just related concerning the ’^uoon Bee,” the gods of that classroom seemed to be Regimentation, Dictated Action, and the Humber One god— Authority.

Such gods demand constant appeasem*nt and fawning subser­ vience, and the coin offered must be rich in conformity, uniformity, and rigidity.

In her speech at the Western Arts Conference held at Columbus,

Ohio, in April of 1952, Zirbes spoke knotvingly of the resistant gods mentioned earlier, and though she geared her particular references to

the group with v à i o m she ivas talking, the thoughts expressed there have a much broader connotation;

Ifechanization does not develop. If we expect art to serve developmentally, mechanization is not our means. It makes cogs of men, reduces their freedom to gear them into patterning processes. Regimentation enables one man to manipulate others, subordinating their action to external regulation, inhibiting spontaneity for the sake of conformity and easy management. It limits interaction and social spontaneity as vrell, and reduces responsibility to the level of compliant sub­ ordination. Its equalization is achieved by emphasizing regulations, by reducing variations, by minimizing individuality— just the opposite of what art education can do. Regimentation is unjustifiable in most social, developmental school activities, and is reprehensible ■with young children. That is recognizedly arrangements 122

•which reduce crowding and favor informality, flexible seating, equipment and curricular adjustments. The strains of regulation are relieved by breaking large classes into social groups, by treating children as individuals in creative activities, by involving them in coperative plans and vital experience*

Dictated action also inhibits spontaneity. Too many art lessons still start with directions. Dictated action is not expression and does not develop integrity of expression. It is particularly inappropriate in art education on that account. Developmental art education does not tell children what to do— to draw or to paint— ■whor* to begin, wïiat to do next, how to do it, breaking the whole process down into directions to be followed step by step, and robbing it of its vholeness and its distinctive art values. Nor does it say, do anything you please and let it go at that, after passing out standardized sheets or half sheets or quarter sheets of paper. The conditions of creative expressive activity are more developmental •when they are a part of the rich flow of total experience in ■which art education finds its stimulus and its role. Creative teaching challenges the learner’s initiative, develops his potentialities, raises the level of aspiration to higher competence. This calls for a developmental approach. Autocratic procedures and laissez faire policies are both out of order.85

Many children who are subjected to such a world of authoritar­ ianism know little about oreativeness in the classroom. They dare not, for they live in a regimented world— a world in •vAiich ”1” is

"an assumption"— an assumption of •what I know, an assumption of vdiat

I should know, an assumption of how I shall l e a m it, vjhat part of me it will affect, and finally the assumption of its general imparted good. But "I" as an unsolved problem steadily seeking for a solution-

Laura Zirbes, "Creative Experience in the Education of Children," Western Arts Association Bulletin (Nov. 1952, Vol. 36, N. 4), p. 9. 123 my solution?— that is superfioiall And, therefore, "I" -nho am taught a set of assumed ansT/ers have never found the "me" in t he learning process. In fact, in this assumptive world even "I-ness" may be lost and in its place may stand an impersonal and collective "you."

A child quite easily becomes a stranger unto himself, for though he must ever shadow himself, he knows himself not and has no passport to that other realm of inner person.

This is a school world of "Do, do, doI" and not of "Take time to growl" Under this constant pressure of incessantly doing the teacher’s bidding there must be times when the child probably sympathizes vdth these words of Falstaff: "I were better to be eaten to death with rust than scoured to nothing with perpetual motion."


Barkan interprets such imposed action here: "To emphasize the action alone, without its relationship to seeing and feeling hinders creative effort."®®

And what effect does this type of teaching have on children?

The effects will probably be as varied as the children themselves, but here are some possibilities that a few authors consider as likely:

It is hard to understand people who play-act much of the time. Children have learned that it is usually wiser not to be themselves before adults. They have tried it too many times with disappointment.®*^

86 Barkan, op. cit., p. 57. 87 ' " Applegate, op. cit., p. 1, 124

Creativity in all forms is apt to be thwarted, and here

Applegate refers to the outcome such teaching may have on creative speech:

The formal school room gradually strips the blossoms of creative speech from the lips of children. Only the child v/ith the marked talent for the picturesque still retains his original language. Year afbar year the speech of each becomes a little more the speech of all, until during the adolescent period it takes on an actual pattern. The door of creativity shuts fast and, for many, never opens again.®®

Even a greater involvement is the one Jersild refers to here:

The failures, reminders of limitations, and the re­ jection which children face at school are often artifi­ cial and forced. They may have the effect of humiliating the child by depreciating his worth in a manner that does no good to society and does him great harm. ÎÆuch of the failure at school is contrived. Mach of the depreciation children encounter there is based upon false evaluation. Some of it rests upon a punitive approach to education ■vfliioh in some schools has a savage intensity. The cards are stacked against many children. They are stacked when teachers, in league with the prevailing competitive pressures in our society, attach greater importance to certain school achievements than they merit, and apply pressures which make the child feel that he is worthless in all respects because he does not happen to be a top performer in some r e s p e c t s . 89

The long range effect of such teaching is presented here by


Gradually and cumulatively such sterile experiences stunt development. The personality of the growing child is thus made less creative, more submissive, more de­ pendent on direction and approval, less adaptable, less secure, less expressive, less outgoing. V/hen this happens

88 Ibid., p. 11. 89 Jersild, op . cit., p. 91. 125

to individuala and classes day in and day out, year after year, it beoomos a devastating blight vjlth lasting person­ al and cultural consequences,”*^

It is high time, it would seem, to discard a few gods of the classroom. And this is happening. Even a "Queen Bee" loses her sting—

— vdien enough fine, flexible, and well-qualified teachers are introduced into the same school system. Those newcomers then become the pacemakers— new champions for a more vital and resilient imy of educating young children,

— when fellow teachers are helped by administrators to build enough courage in themselves to dare to find new designs in living and learning rather than loaning on the crutch of old patterns,

— when a "Queen Bee" and others of her ilk are accorded the rights of individuals but not the tributes of tyrants.

— vjhen "self-imposed royalty" is regarded realistically and not regarded in a mirrored "blow up" which it would accord itself,

— vdien surrounding classrooms become so "alive" with vital experiencing that regimentation, mechanization, stereotyping, and their cohorts become quite out-of-step by comparison.

And a "Queen Bee" can be helped to modify her own personality, too—

— Tdien she is exposed to new ideas— ones in which she can be­ come involved to such an extent that she will be willing to trade

90 Laura Zirbes, "Child Development Through Art Education," YJestern Arts Association Bulletin (Nov,, 1951, Vol. 36, No, 1), p, 10, 126

"old lamps for new".

— when workshops and in-aenrice programs are offered so that all teachers may experience the thrill and camaraderie of growing together#

— when schools encourage the freshness and stimulation of nevr ideas, materials, and experiences to come in at the "front door" and permeate creatively throughout the school#

— when fellowship and cooperation are the goals schools set for themselves rather than the meagemess and selfishness of mere competition.

Concepts Fostered by Some Administrators

"Yes," smiled the superintendent as he pompously leaned back in his svri-vel chair and tapped his finger-tips gingerly together,

"I never have any problems in mj^ school. Never I I expect and demand my teachers to submit lesson plans to me six weeks in advance.

Ifïhy," he added proudly, "I can walk into any classroom any day, and before I go in I know exactly what will be talcing place. Yes, in­ deed, no foolishness exists here. This," and here he beamed, "is a model schoolI"

A pre-conceived world with no element for chance or change, and an autocrat to keep it functioning sol V/here does the creative mind function here? And here is another superintendent talking;

"Young woman," thundered the superintendent as if he were delivering a sermon to a full congregation, "it matters not to me 127

•what you teach nor how you teach it just so long as you have good

discipline. Keep then busy and keep then quiet— that ' a m y rule.

Order— tlmt’s the first rule of heaven, you knowl Now," he con­ cluded, "do you want the job?"

Keep then quiet 1 Keep them busy I Self discipline? Growth?

Doors to creativity?

"Mother," wrote the "young vronian" that night, "what is the first rule of heaven?"

"I thought you knowl" replied the mother’s astonished pen,

"iVhy, love, my dear, but," the pen went on, "who said that heaven speaks of ’rules’?"

The years include all kinds of people. Hero, for example, is a glimpse of a very reluctant administrator;

"TJhat a lovely new schooli exclaimed a visitor to one of the young occupants of the building, "And where," she continued, is your principal’s office?"

"Right over there," the child motioned pointing •’'o a closed door, "but," she cautioned, "I’d not bother him if I wore you."

"YJhy not?" queried the visitor.

"He doesn’t like people," the child confided. "He keeps the door locked."

"Is it true?" the visitor later asked a faculty member.

"All too truel" came the answer. "Y/hen he comes out, it means just one thing--8omebody’s in for trouble. Really," she concluded,

"we’re happy when that door is closed." 128

Frozen relations. ïïo chance for the school to function as a

•vvhole or to function creatively. The block here v m s one of ice.

Sometimes, however, the formidable block is a huge lump of personal status as the follavriLng incident relatess

"lïlr. Smith,” came the hesitant, questioning voice of a teacher at the threshold of the door, ”may I see you for a moment?”

”Dr. Smith, if you pleaseI” requested that annoyed and very august personage. "Yes, do come in for a moment. M s s Loots," he continued testily, "but do be brief, for I have a Very Important

Conference in about five minutes. Novr, what is it, my dear?" and the

Lord of the Manor smiled thinly on one of his lesser subjeots— an elementary teacher.

The frictions caused by one's own distortions of status and personal worth often tramp dovm new shoots of creativity with the hard heel of a coarse boot.

Lowry W. Harding gives his tongue-in-tha-cheok impressions of how some administrators look w!ien stripped of all but a flimsy garment of verbal covering. Here is his impression of the "pontifical variety":

Proposals are hoard •with a solemn mien. In a sepul­ chral voice it is explained that only the elect, the few chosen for the inner circle, are appropriate to consider a proposal of such import. In hushed tones, an accolade is given the one who made the proposal, with the implica­ tion that one ordinary mortal surely is not able to think 129

up such an idea and also push it. The matter is then dropped as a mark of proper respect to its importance,

Now the "business expert" makes his crisp entry:

He reduces everything to its simplest terras— time, staff, money— and points out that there is not enough time for present activities. It’s easy to get agree­ ment on that. YJhen he asks, "THhare can I get a competent staff these days?" everyone looks pained and feels guilty. In a hollow voice comes the question, "Can this be taken care of in the present budget?" Since all budgets for education are too small, this ends the p r o p o s a l ,

And the "blase cynic" raises a bored eyebrovf here:

Sees all— knows all, even before it is explained. Proposals are heard in a tolerant, even gently contempt­ uous, manner. Yfearily the ansiver is given, "Yes, it sounds like it might bo a good idea, but those things never work." If necessary, the names of a half-dozen communities are cited, implying that this particular idea was tried in all of them M t h unfortunate results. Naturally, that finishes that,®^

Three stand in sharp relief against the light of one here:


Yellow Ochre

Number One Boy Smiles benignly On the scurrying, Ifenial crew That hover ’round His fattening framework To fawn for favors— Precious few.

Lovfry Vf, Harding, "Twenty-One Varieties of Educational Leadership," Educational Leadership (February, 1949, Vol. VI, No. 5), p, 300, ^^Ibid., p, 301, 93 Ibid., p, 302* 130

Burnt Umber

Voodoo Priest, Aesthetic mystic. Bow before your Sacred Cow That lows of things Of Ultimate Good, But never moos Of Now*

Boat the drums. Proclaim the cymbals. Stir the tribal Ire. Create confusion. Destroy cohesion In pandemonium’3 Fire*

Red Sienna

Frenzied Red Chief, Frenzied tribesmen. Beating loud An ancient hate Of changing times And changing wisem*n— - These shall meet Thy hatchet’s fate.

Prismatic Light

From the tumoil All about him Stands the Democrat i c one• Full of grace And tall of timber, Hmpeooably grown He takes the sun*

L* L« 0.

Adults and children must either be very brave to test creativ­ ity against such odds, or else they must create— even clandestinely— 131 to be able to exist ivlth such conditions. Again, many find it simpler to move over into an expected groove and continue in an assigned pattern of numbed mediocrity.

But "moving over" is unnecessary when administrators take time and room to do a little horizontal and vertical moving themselves, and this takes place—

— xrfien administrators keep themselves resilient to children, teachers, and learning..,to new doubts... and even to mistakes I

— ■^'ïhen status does not stand in the way of growbh. l%en whole schools of persons can at times laugh together, play together, and discover together that there are no islands of humanity ivhioh cannot be bridged if there is enough cooperation and resiliency to provide a strong but flexible arch.

--when administrators seek to improve their knowledge of school life and living through democratic action rather than by closing the door rigidly to conceal their own limitations.

— when the day and the times are optimistically considered to be "changing" rather than being viewed rigidly as something altogether

"changeless". VJhen change can inspire rather than negate aspirations within a man, then he is still reaching...and hoping...and building... and becoming.

--when administrators want others to share the dream, the process, and the struggle v/ith them. Vihen they are mature enough to divide the glory with pleasure and when they themselves move over so 132 that ovon the smallest may enter in— then they are inviting faith and building rapport*

— Tdien an administrator— like a good parent— seeks to build in each teacher the responsibility of cooperative and mature independence.

--ivhen ad administrator thrills to the on-goingness of children and community and when he defends such growth by himself engaging in the building of that society*

Concepts Fostered by Some Curricula

lîany of our schools seem to be ineffective because we get the building, the materials, the curriculum, and the teachers all ready, and then the wrong student body comas to school. Any curriculum set up in advance is bound to fail, because education is an emerging process*

The pre-conceived curriculum— be it teacher-made, expert devised, or text-book manufactured— intimates that the average child should be at this level of progress, so the material within the two stiff covers, or four stout walls, or the erect pillar of teacher should be easily swallowed* In essence, there should be no problems*

But how many children are average? How many children are satisfied with a more normal bill-of-fare? There’s a fancy trap, and many teachers and schools and children flounder in it every year*

Schools so often struggle desperately to fit the child to the educational shoe rather than fitting the shoe to the child. Of course, the child may have to curl his toes to keep the shoes on, or

94 Kelley, op* cit., pp, 82-83* 135 he may have to slow his gait if the pinch beoomos too acute, but no one questions the shoes. After all, the leather’s fine, thewrlonan- ship was done by craftsmen of note, and at least a third of the children in the group find that the shoes fit with some degree of comfort. Oh, to be sure, some would have chosen a different style, and others a different color, but, then, there’s no pleasing every­ body. (Especially if no one is askedl) True, it is difficult to be creative when one's feet hurt— pain somehow has an element of blank to it— but children should be glad they have shoes. After all, think

of those v A i o don’t I

It was E. T. ItacS'ivain vdio so knowingly remarked; ’’The child never sees the curriculum that he does not create.”

Concepts Fostered by Some Parents

"Now, Henry,” reminded his mother adjusting her fur scarf,

’’tell tho teacher ivhat we decided at home."

"I don't wanna,” mumbled seven year old Henry his eyes down­ cast and his lower lip trembling*

"Henry,” coached his mother, "remember, dear.”

"Don’t wanna," came the repeated answer as the child’s toe traced a crack in the floor*

"Very well, Henry," came the tones above the mink scarf*.

Then, turning to the teacher she said in an overly sweet voice, "Henry would like to make an ash tray for his father’s desk. A really nice ceramic piece for his father’s office, you know." 134

"Do not," oamo the clenched words much lower do^m.

"#iy, Henry, you never told me," suggested the teacher. "Of course, if this is what you really want to make for your father, you certainly may."

"Don’t wanna, really," came the confused voice*

"Now, Henry," interrupted the mother, "you heard what the teacher said."

"But Daddy doesn’t smoke 1"the child finally hurst out in one desperate attempt.

"Then why do you want to malce an ash tray, Henry?" questioned the teacher.

"I don’t— she doesl" accused the child glowering at his mother.

"Well, dear," twittered the red-faced mother, "you know how nice it would he for Daddy's office. Especially now that he’s won the election. He’d be so proud. Just think how many people could use that ash tray in Daddy’s office, and just think how proud he’d he to say that his very own little boy made itI"

"I made him a paper weight for his desk," argued the child*

"Well, yes," agreed the mother, "but that was just a round ball."

"I glazed it," added the child, "and put a decoration on first with slip."

"He did a nice job, too," mused the teacher*

"And if Daddy doesn't smoke. I’m not going to make him an ash tray I" came the determined answer* 135

”0h dear,” sighed the mother, and then turning to the teacher she continued, ”W e ’d so like to have Henry’s things around the house— really £Ood things. He is our only child, you knovf.”

’’That's just the "way I feel,” agreed the teacher, ’’and that is

v à i y one of Henry's paintings is up in here,” and she indicated a painting on the vmll.

"Well, yes,” agreed the mother glancing quickly, ’’but I mean something really good enough for our hornet Oh,” she rushed on, ’’there are just a whole list of things I'd like him to make. Do you think you can help me?”

"If you want Henry to be different from other little boys in this room. I'll take the list, but you'll have to come in and help because I'm sure he won't work happily, as you can see for yourself.

Of course,” the teacher added with a happy thought, ’’you'd better wear a smock, and maybe you hadti’t better plan on anything spectacular because Henry's muscles aren't too well coordinated yet. In fact,” she smiled in suggestion, ’’why don't you come in and make the things yourself. Vfe'd be delighted to have youj Have you ever painted, or sawed wood, or worked with clay?”

"Fell, no," the mother murmured and seemed in haste to make her departure. Some moments later the teacher extended her hand.

’’Goodbye and do come again, ” she invited, ”0h, and by the vray, don't forget that list and your smock.”

Neither the list nor the be-smooked mother ever came, and

Henry continued creating with no further maternal pressure. 136

Creating to impress, creating v/ithout child-purpose at the core, creating against the child’s judgment, and expecting the child to create at a much higher level than he is developmentally able- all these are blocks v&iich parents sometimes shove in the child's way— not with real malicious intent, but in ways that leave strange scars and underlying frictions.

Concepts Fostered by Some Aspects of the Culture

In his book. Education For TJhat Is Real, Earl Kelley lists ten common assumptions that certain aspects of our culture thrust on education, and these are opinions that do much in making creativity miss :

We assume that the child goes to school to acquire knowledge, and that knowledge is something which has existed for a long time and is handed doivn on authority.

Wo assume that subject matter taken on authority is education itself.

We assume that the best v : a y to set out subject matter is in unassociated fragments or p a r c e l s . ^7

We assume that a fragment or parcel of subject matter is the same to the learner as to the t e a c h e r . 98

We assume that education is supplementary to and preparatory to life, not life itself.99

We assume that since education is not present living, it has no social aspects.^®®

95ibid., p. 15. Ibid., p. 18,

P* ^°°Ibid., p. 18, ^^Ibid., p. 16. GGlbid., p. 17. 137

We assume that the teacher can and should furnish the purpose needed for the acquiring of knowledge«101

We assume that working on tasks devoid of purpose or interest is good d i s c i p l i n e « 1 0 2

V i e assume that the answer to the problem is more important than the p r o c e s s . 103

We assume that it is more important to measure what has been learned than it is to learn.104

It is almost unbelievable that at a most crucial and dynamic period in our country’s development, a period when schools should be educating youth for flexibility, creativity, and a greater independent maturity than there is that aspect of Lot’s wife in the culture which would turn back to "what was," which would veto the tomorrows— the on-going process— for just another look at the glories past, the authority of yesterday, and the printed stability of recorded civili­ zation. These are the factors that hinder and deny creativity, for creativity is a thing waiting to be perceived, to bo b o m , to be brought into a stmggling existence, to be re-shaped, and to be yet designed.

Stereotyping— A Blocking Agent

Not only do hectographed and mimeographed patterns for oolor- ing-in smack of an obnoxious form of stereotyping in the classroom, although perhaps this type of dulling the edge is the most obvious

^^^Ibid., p. 19. ^°^Ibid., p. 19. 103 Ibid «, p. 21. 104 Ibid., p. 22. 138 one, but there are all the other activities that say, in effect,

"Stay inside the lines (teacher-made lines); follovr the directions given (teacher directions); make your coloring uniform (and your thinlcing, too); don’t press too hard on your crayons (or your creative capacities either)I"

■'.'Vhen the teacher says during a discussion period follovnLng an assigned reading period in a given area, "Now, children, who can tell me the answer to this question?" he is assuming that: (l) everyone should read the same material because (2) this is the best material

(teacher being judge) and (3) there are set answers to all possible questions concerning the material readl In fact, here there is but one ansvrer which is known as the answer, and that is usually the answer conceived by either the textbook company or the teacher.

Authority! RegimontationI Dictated Action! Stereotyping? In such a situation children usually have little opportunity to bo trans­ formed by the renetval of their thinlcing.. .of their creating.

Some teachers do not leave as much to chance as the one v^o assumes that if an assignment is given the answer will be ferreted out. Consider this situation:

An Aasrican educator "wiio once attempted to indoctrinate all

Samoan teachers with Herbart’s five famous steps was very stringent in his demands for proper lesson plans and right responses. Soma years later when another American teacher went to Samoa he asked one young Polynesian teacher if the latter had any problems in the teaching of arithmetic. The Samoan emphatically replied, "Lei, lei I," 139 or "Mol" Seelcing to determine the secret of the island teacher's success, the questioner asked the "how" of the native teacher's proficiency, and— in utter seriousness--the young Polynesian explained that he alvreiys gave the children the correct answers before commencing tho five outline stops of the lesson! The element of chance was very slight#

Schools in these United States also permit the years to stereo­ type by relying on what has a]ways been done to serve as an indicator for emphasizing vAat shall be placed in the curriculum and what with­ in that curriculum shall be stressed and what shall be given a "onco- over-lightly" dusting. Perhaps a more objective view of this can be gained by seeing the curriculum in a rather fanciful and more objec­ tive form as this animal tale presents. L. W, Harding of the Ohio

State University accredits the unpublished authorship to G. H. Reaviss of the Cincinnati Public Schools :



(The administration of the School Curriculum with reference to Individual Differences.)

Once upon a time, tho animals decided they must do some­ thing heroic to meet the problems of "a new world." So they organized a school.

They adopted an activity curriculum consisting of run­ ning, climbing, svdmming, and flying. To make it easier to administer the curriculum, all the animals took all the subjects.

Tho duck was excellent in sv/imming, in fact better than his instructor; but he made only passing grades in flying 140

and T/as very poor in running. Since he Tvas slow in run­ ning, he had to stay after school and also drop smraming in order to practice running. This T/as kept up until his web feet were badly worn and he T/as only average in aivim- ïïiing. But average was acceptable in school, so nobody worried about that except the duck.

The rabbit started at the top of the class on running, but he had a nervous breakdown because of so much make-up in swimming.

The squirrel T/as excellent in climbing until he developed frustration in the flying class where his teacher made him start from the ground up instead of from the troetop doTjn, He also developed "Charlie Horses" from overexertion and then got "C" in climbing and "D" in running.

The eagle T/as a problem child and vras disciplined severely. In the climbing class he beat all the others to the top of tho tree, but insisted on using his o\m T/ay to get there.

At the end of the year, an abnormal eel that could swim exceedingly well and also run, climb, and fly a little had the highest average and T/as valedictorian.

The prairie dogs stayed out of school and fought the tax levy because the administration would not add digging and burrowing to the curriculum. They apprenticed their child to a badget and later joined the ground-hogs and gophers to start a successful private school.

Stereotyping, TJhere over it is found in schools, reduces the child’s chances for creative exploration and advancement. It teaches him to "do as he is told," to rely on authority, to stay

"between the lines"— be they race, class, or coloring ones, to "be careful," to learn the answer, to believe without questioning, to like That the group liked, and to v/ait for action until he is told

Tdiat action to take— the doing without the perceiving, the inter­ nalizing, the making "mine," 141

Zirbes characterizes stereotyped learning as an opposite to oreatiTity here: "I thirdc another characteristic %vay of getting at this is to recognize creativity from its opposite; stereotyped regimentation, frustration, oppression, lack of any incentive to aspire.

Next Zirbes takes a position in relation to those vfho teach absolutes :

Vfe are against the kind of people that give people education as though it were final knowledge. In a time of change we have to begin to learn how to educate for activity and for a world that is not predictable. How do you make people adaptively constructive, instead of willing to believe anything?^®®

Lastly, this same author explains the "why” of her position in opposition to stereotyped learnings

By prematurely imposing arbitrary curbs and standards, by substituting stereotypes for creative imagery, educa­ tion blocks development and inhbits vdiere it should liberate....By premature emphasis on form, by reliance on patterns, models or directions and the sanctions that go with their use, teaching mechanizes and stereotypes personalities at the expense of the essential spontaneity on Tfhich dynamic self-release and individuality of ex­ pression depend....Something happens to originality when it is blocked or rejected* Something happens to self- confidence when it is not challenged. This is particularly regrettable i\hen social approval is attached to dependence on stereotypes which inhibit truly creative behavior in young childran*^^"^

^^^Barkan and Mooney, editors. The Conference on Creativity, op. cit., p. 20, ^^^Ibid., p. 28, 107 Zirbes, "Cliild Development Through Art Education," op. oit., p. 10, 142

Aad a poet and philosopher speaks of the useless futility of such teaching, for he says of teaching;

îlo man can reveal to you aught but that ■which already lies half asleep in the davming of your knovfledge. — Kahil Gibran from: The Prophet

In Samoa the Polynesians refer to dead-end si-tuations as leading to a place colorfully and aptly designated as "no elsewhere." There is, in fact, an old Samoan proverb -which is literally translated to read -thus: "A ship -without a rudder reaches no else-^vhoro," It v/ould seem that stereotyping leads to much the same destination, for stereo­ typing does not teach— it merely cuts the waves deeper through old channels of patterning. Stereotyping is an educational "no else-whor*,"

The Blocking of "Too-hhchness"— A Smothering

Sometimes v f t i o n a child is given a superfluity of the goodness

of life, he grows in much the same v m y as he is spoon-fed— rather

8-tuffy. His life is so consumed -with living on top of ivonder, see­ ing the essence of greatness, hearing the -vibrations of beauty, and feeling the awesome dimensions of splendor that he has no time to develop the overtones of self or to expand his oivn v/aiting potential­ ities.

Often there is too much "-wanting-for" for children. Life’s treasures should be found— not gathered for the young. True, the

secret of the door should be cued, the desire should be v/hetted, the 143

sonsos be alerted, but the finding should be the child's oiwi quest.

Leland B» Jacobs used to refer to a seemingly wanting state as

a "Blessed be nothing!" condition. Within such a framework there are

limitless possibilities for building, for growing, for finding, and

for treasuring. This condition, hovjover, does not negate the need for raw materials with which to build or a seed or so of beauty from which other beauty may arise, but it does give the child space in which to develop his own abilities, a freedom for him to make his

own unique selections of beauty, and it leaves a need for furthor

seeking and developing.

Pity the child whose parents say, "We don’t Icnow "what to give

him. He has everythingI" Such a child may well be compared vdth a

pate de foie gras goose. This fowl is given so much fine food that

toward its over-stuffed demise its head must be held in a vice •vvhile

more and yet more food is rammed dovm its protesting gullet.

Just as too much food kills the goose, and too much fuel

smothers the fire, so also vri.ll too much of anything annihilate that

vhich it seeks to further. The most radiant truths, the most glori­

ous beauties, and the most magnificent ecstacies are those that man

finds and malces possible for and by himself.

M s m needs to know emptiness to revel in fullness, he needs to

chill Tidnter to rejoice in Spring, he needs to feel the weight

of sorrow to find the wings of joy, and he needs to knovr the demands

of quest before he discovers conquest. 144

Too-muohness is a vreiddlod state, a stuporish time for things and men i/vho seek to hibernate themselves, but, for those vjho’d seek

Hyperion gates, a life more frugal in its richness given -will lead the child to his quest of "heaven." 145


(Tempera) Age 6

The Very Old House

Msoiy animals like this old house, and so

they came to live in it. They play together.

Pretty soon all the enimals notice the house and

go to live there. They have fun.

Child’s story. 147


(Tempera) Ago 6

One day I vras going to the easel to paint a picture of a house.

I happened to look at the easel, and

I saw that it vra,s full, and I didn't get to paint. I changed my plan to vrork vdth clay, and this is how I looked. — Child's story* 148



Hearts and FloiTOrs (Tempera) Age 6

Crane and Riveters (Tempera) Age 7 149

-Playground (Tempera) Ago 7

Clovms (Tempera) Age 7 150



% % &

Happy Clovjn (Tempera) Age 7

The olcTOi is in the ring, and it is

raining big drops. The people are laughing

at the olcTm. The clomi is laughing too.

He is a happy clovvn. •

— Child’s story. 151 r

I J / r ' '

Design for .'.ÿ Daddy (Tempera) Age 7



Rabbit on a Hill (Burlap embroidery) Age 7 152

"Funny CloTOi (Tempera) Age 7 153


•Ballet Dancers (Crayon) Ago 8

“Design (Crayon) Ago 8 CHAPTER Y


A good life is one that oan oonvort obstacles into means. — laura Zirbes

The Chain Reaction of Positivenesa

Tom Sawyer and a laughing gang of boys i/riiitewashing Aunt

Polly's fence; the I-think-I-oon, I-think-I-oan uphill chugging

of the Little Ehgine That Could; Scrooge reveling in his delayed

Christmas positiveness; the forward-moving concern of Florence nightingale, Clara Barton, and Sister Kenny; the affirmative fore­

sight of Marconi, Bell, Edison, the Wright brothers, and countless

numbers more; and the aspiring faith of humanity as seen in the

great positive actions of men like Lincoln, Gandhi, and Albert

Schweitzer— all these, from fiction and from actual life, and the

untold millions more who daily make more molehills of mental

mountains prove that through one aot of positveness "the door in

the wall" can be opened for a seeking multitude of hopeful others.

The door stands ajar as much for children as adults, and the

child who daily seeks to open his own doors will become quite adept

at this feat the older he grows.

Grog was soven-and-a-half years old, and he had need of help

in measuring a piece of wood. Seeing the teacher busy with a group of

other children, he proceeded to tackle his own problem. He got a

— 154 — 155 ruler and beoame intensely engrossed in his work. Later, 'when there m s more available time and teaoher, the child looked up with every freckle shining. "Say," he announced, "rulers are really sharp, aren’t they? I think I figured out something. See if I’m right."

He had wanted to place a mark in the middle of a piece of wood one and three-quarter inches wide, so he explained, "The wood measured this much," and he indicated on the niler, "and that isn't on the inch mark or on tha half inch mark, so I didn’t know what to do, and then I saw all those other marks (eighths), so I counted them, and there were fourteen of those. Then I thought if two sevens make fourteen. I’d count to seven and see if it looked like half, and sure enough it m a l Right?" he asked beaming.

"RightI" replied a proud teacher, "How 7/hat do you think that much of an inch is called?" she asked indicating one eighth.

"Oh, I think I figured that out, too," grinned the boy, "I found out that there are eight of those things in an inch, so could those be ’eighths'?"

"could be and areI" agreed the teacher. "Now what would you call this much space?" and she indicated the original measurement- one and three-quarter inches.

The boy thought a moment, then counted quiokly, "I get itI" he said excitedly, "Fourteen eighths I"

"You could," agreed the teacher, "but how about another name?

If you know that eight eighths make one inch, why don't you start in by telling me that your measurement is one inch and so many more eighths?" 156

”I get iti I got ItI" the boy exclaimed quickly, "One inch and six eighths t Boy, oh Boyl” he announced, ”M 1 1 my Dad be sur­ prised tonightJ”

Thereafter Greg did his oim measuring and helped to push

"doors" open for his classmates, too*

Being creatively positive with others as well as one's self is a splendid dimension of personality to cultivate* One of the country's outstanding public school administrators makes a point of writing personal congratulatory notes to school people throughout the country who have made some achievement in their professional field that is worthy of recognition.

A highly respected older teacher who sometimes brought

"problems" to a younger and newer teaoher always said before making her exit, "I never leave you without receiving help. You're always so willing and gracious about considering my problems," and with that she'd add a warm smile, extend a firm hand and leave with a glowing, "Thanlc youl" One day as the younger teaoher paused to reflect on how good she always felt after each of the older woman's visits, the truth "struck hom*o." It was she, the ne opiate, and not her senior who was receiving help, and it was she, the newcomer, who was being made to fool needed and appreciated and an integral part of the staff* The older and wiser educator was actually sharing her problems so that she might also share herself, her thanks, and her friendship. She was welding the new member into a creative chain of positiveness* 157

A vrord or a note a oommendation sincerely given adds so muoh stature to both the giver and receiver that it is a pity merely to think one’s thoughts when consnunioating them graciously would in^art pleasure and faith imraeaourably further. As Shakespeare so wisely observed :

One good deed dying tongueless Slaughters a thousand waiting upon that. Our praises are our wages. — Shakes pearo , from: A Mnter*s Tale

Teachers who oan find one good quality in a child oan do more to build further by commencing with that single exemplary character­ istic than by attempting to reform any number of loss appealing characteristics, for everyone has to have "one to grow on".,,or, as the song stipulates, "You’ve got to accentuate the positive and eliminate the negative.,."

For some children the chief obstacle is the getting started— the turning on the ignition and giving the starter a push. Soma children and adults, too, resist starting new things because they fear their lack of ability to perform well. Such individuals need to be encouraged to aot even if the action itself is imperfect, for as the adage reminds "Nothing ventured, nothing gained,"

Collier expressed the "why" of a need for action here:

It is from the needs of action that knowledge is dynamically empowered. Imperfect action is better for men and societies than perfection in waiting, for the errors wrought by action are cured by new action. And when the people acted upon are themselves made true partners in the actions, and oo-disoeverers of the corrections of error, then through and through, and in 158

spite of bltmders or even by virtue of them, the vital energies are increased, confidence increases, power in­ creases, experience builds toward wisdom, and the most potent of all principles and ideals, deep democracy, slowly wins the f i e l d s , 1 0 8

The chain reaction of positiveneaa is a building agent. Here

Zirbes considers it in such a light: "Creativity consists in posi-

tiveness, the person is constructive and out-going and engaged in


And Mooney emphasizes the point further* "In the creative

process, there is a positive orientation, is a direct, positive,

assertive operation.

All manner of things have been built by positive thinking—

a school creates a beautiful performance where once was only wishful

thinking, a noted college stands today upon a one-time worthless bog,

a M m stands confident and tall where only timid Boy stood yesterday,

a Nation grows tidiere yesteryear were only prairie schooners making

faith do for want of trails, and Today is filled with promise because

Yesterday was realized successfully.

108 John Collier, "United States Indian Administration As a Laboratory of Bbhnio Research," Social Research, September, 1945 (Vol. 12, No. 3), p, 298, 109 Barkan and Mooney, editors, o£, cit., p. 17. 110 Ibid., p, 17, 159

Example and Precept— » Agents for Salvaging Values

It was early in the morning— an hour before school coramenoed— and the teacher thought she m s working alone* Suddenly she hoard feet skipping, and then a head poked its inquisitive way through the door. ”Hi, Skippyl” she said to this part of the child's anatomy,

’’You’re an early bird tool”

’’TOiat do you do so early?” the o M l d demanded*

”Mmœn, lots of things* Today I unloaded the kiln, cleaned the paper cabinet, watered the plants, cleaned up paint jars, watered the glazes, oh,” she laughed, "I do a lot of 'before school things' like that* Here,” she offered the inquisitive small one, ’’You may feed the fish.”

’’Brenda is down in the room* May she come, too? We come early every day, and we're all alone.”

"By all means,” encouraged the teaoher, and within minutes two

skippers emerged through the doorway.

”C'n me and Brenda help?"

"Yilhat would you like to do? There’s the crayon box to clean

out, the ' y a m barn' needs to have some loose tails wound up, we need some cans of fresh water, and maybe someone would like to help me dust.”

"Huh,” shrugged Skippy, ”we o'n do all of that in no time,

hm Brenda?” 160

They all "worked together chatting and laughing and. having fun*

Later In the morning vdxen these same children came to the arts area -with their total group they told others what they had done to help*

"We want to help tool" the lefb-outors demanded*

"You do," smiled the teacher, "every single day," and seeing the disbelief on their faces she added, "Whenever you oare for the area nicely during olean-up time— by returning your tools, by sweep- ing-up sawdust, cleaning up drips, washing brushes, and returning materials— you make it possible for another group to coma in here and enjoy an attractive work area* Then you’re sharing your help with the whole school* TiVhy," she concluded, "I just don’t know how this room would keep going without youl"

That day when the "olean-up" bell rang, every child really buzzed in his effort to help,

"There nowl" exclaimed one young chap as he gave the teacher an affectionate pat before leaving, "I think the room will keep going today* Yfe all shared in making it pretty."

Learning to share all manner of self leads to personal happi­ ness and social happiness too, but teachers need to help set the example— to establish the precept— so that children do not feel as if they were being exploited by adults*

Teachers also need to let children see an occasional example of struggle now and then before they see the full glory* 161

" said an awed child watching a great symphony conductor mop his perspiring head vhile working out a rough passage during an

inspiring rehearsal, "lify, I never knew good musicians had to work

so hard. Tiühy, they even try harder than I do when I practice my

clarinet lessonl”

Knowledge won by example often gives children a desire to rise over "humps" in the terrain of growing. Applegate says: "Human nature needs pushes if it would reach beyond itself.

Through active examples and lived precepts the child gains in­ sights concerning teachers and adults just as teachers gain informa­ tion about the child by watching him unfold in process. Among other things, active examples let children see that teachers find the

"going" is not all silk-volvet either— that teachers have to experi­ ence struggle, too, before they con achieve success. Jind this is healthy and good and right. Children should not grow up thinking that the adult vrorld is "apple pie" or "poaches" or whatever else represents "easy" to them. Adults miaeducato when they permit this to happen to children. Children have both a right and a need to know that to create is a struggle— a real, intense, and internal

struggle, but they also need to learn that in meeting struggle, in

solving problems, and in being unafraid to tackle new ones there is

a wonderful quest to exhilerating stretch of person, and that there is a deeply rewarding happiness in knov/ing that "I" have

^^^Applegate, op. cit., p. 30* 163 been able to meet the challenge well and, because of this, now seek others» This thought has been colorfully expressed poetically here:

Yfell, son. I'll tell you: Life for me ain't been no crystal stair* It's had tacks in it. And splinters. And boards t o m up. And places with no carpet on the floor— Bare* But all the time I*se been a-climbin' on. And reaohin’ landin's. And turnin' comers. And sometimes goin' in the dark 7/hero there ain't been no light# So, boy, don't you turn back* Don't you sot down on the steps 'Cause you find it kinder hard* Don't you fall now— For I'se still goin', honey, I*so still climbin'. And life for me ain't been no crystal stair*

— Langston Hughes

The Exhileration of Creative Struggle- Growing a New Self Dimension

Ho stood, a tall teen-ager, watching the little children working with the clay, the wood, with paints, with a needle and thread, with looms, and with block printing tools* "Isn't it won­ derful what they oan do with their hands?" he mused half to himself and half to the teacher* Then he looked down at his own "hands" which wore steel hooks. "Well," he admitted ivryly, "I can do some things they can't*.*.but hands are v/onderful things," and he sat there watching* *.and admiring**.and thinking. 163

He had knoTm hands, too, a year ago, but in the process of mixing chemicals in a laboratory there had been an accident, and now his arms had steel extensions*

"You*d never know him for the boy he used to bet" remembered one teaoher. "To be sure, he was nice enough, but he was inclined to be head-strong and often quite thoughtless. We used to wonder when he*d start maturing. Then came the accident. Everyone wondered what his reactions would be. Would ho feel self-pity or would he be resentful? Wo one knew. He really surprised us though, for he learned to use those hooks in record time and with extreme dexterity— have you ever noticed? But the biggest change is his personality.

He*s so kind and courteous and considerate now. Have you ever noticed how he appreciates even the very small things that people do, and he goes out of his way to tell them so, too. Well, like I said, it's almost as if he wore a new person, and a very fine one at that."

To re-learn one's potential self and to make tremendous physical and personal adjustment— these are no small tricks for any­ one. To master such feats is an exhilerating and creative struggle that must really stretch the person to untold heights and dimensions.

Perhaps this is one vmy, and a difficult one, of learning what ims said so pointedly here:

Wise men ne'er sit and wail their woes. But presently prevent the ways to wail. — Shakespeare from: Bing Eichord II. 164

GrovdLng a new self dimension is usually less dramatic, but even lesser efforts generally leave their stamp upon the individual*

”I want to make a copper dish,” announced the nine year old child.

"Have you thought vAxat that involves?” asked the teacher.

”0h sure!” the child shrugged.

"Tell me," the teaoher suggested.

"Oh, cut out a piece of metal and hammer it,” breezed the boy*

"Vfell, Eon, supposing we talk about the very first things you'll probably do."

"Yfell, first I'll cut it out*"

”Y8hat shape will it be?”

”0h, I hadn't thought of that."

"Kenneth, have you ever cut metal?"

"Ho, but it looks easy.”

"Let’s try cutting a piece of scrap metal just to see if you can do it."

The cutting wasn't so easy, but the boy hurdled the struggle*.

Then the tvro discussed the project further, "It may take you quite a long time, you know,” cautioned the teaoher, but the child decided to tackle the problem anyway* He made many designs which he discussed

Tilth his classmates and teachers, and finally he decided on vdiat to him vjas a "best" choice. Hext he outlined the shape on copper, and the first time he laid out the shape he, like Eparainondas, placed it 165

smack in the very center of the sheet of oopperl Another discovery made*

Halfvrny through the laborious job of cutting out his form he grew faint-hearted until a classmate nudged him on by saying,

"I thought you said you know how hard it was I” Then cut he did I

"Well," he exclaimed one day, "it’s all out* Now I ’ll pound."

"TiVith those jagged edges I" exclaimed another boy who had earlier worked in copper. he teased, "you're really going to have a smooth bowl. Here, let’s get a file and smooth it dorni."

The auxiliary aid m s appreciated, and Kenneth smoothed the edges until they were razor clean. "It’s pretty enough now to stop," he announced hopefully.

"Big joke," remarked a classmate, "You're just about ready to begin I ’d say."

Out came the mushroom anvil and the mallet, and thence came the din. At first Kenneth asked his neighbors every five strokes if they thought he had finished. "Ify wordt" chided his best friend,

"Honestly, Ken, you’d think you were primitive man. Vfhy, that thing has ’ruffles’ all over it."

After that Kenneth used his own eyes and beoame intensely critical of bumps, ridges, and ruffles. One day he held his dish to the light turning it this ivay and that. Then he placed it on the table and revolved it slowly udiile peering at it from all possible angles. "I’d say," remarked his critical friend, "I’d say it's pretty sharp." 166

"Yeah, " breathed Kenneth in the rarefied air of this— his very best vrork. "Yea, I think so too* Is It ready now?" he asked the teacher*

"You know it will really glisten vdaen you polish it," the teaoher oomnented approvingly*

"Polish it I TiThy it's beautiful nowl" exclaimed the satisfied craftsman*

"Hero," suggested the teaoher^ving the boy a piece of steel- wool, "Try rubbing your dish until you can see a bright light shining through*"

Tfl-th a sigh the child commenced to rub, and then he oxlaimed so everyone could hear, "Looki Lookl" The coppery lights had started their magic* Now the boy rubbed with a vengeance until the whole piece sparkled like a newly minted penny*

"Do you want it to stay that lovely?" asked the teacher*

"Yilhat do you mean— won't it?"

"Copper gets dull when it la explosed to air," the teacher explained, "but you could put a special lacquer on it vdiich would alv/ays keep it shiny."

The last step* It was finished* Everyone gathered around the child the day ho took his dish home*

"Do you want to gift wrap it?" the teacher offered*

"Oh no," cams the sincere response* "I want to carry it home in HÇT very own hands. I just never knew I could make anything so beautiful*" 167

Kenneth knew then what Kuth Strickland meant when she wrote:

’’Has he been deprived of the opportunity to develop initiative and

joy in thinking and working? Perhaps he has never had the experi­

ence of the girl who said when she was doing something hard, 'Don’t 112 you just love to feel your brain cells crackle?’**

To be able to do one’s very own "brain crackling" is the biggest thrill of all*

Creating Interest: in Uew Possibilities and In So Doing Relinquishing the Grip On Those Ideas 'Which Have Posed a Hurdle

"I won't eat iti" the seven year old boy stoutly maintained

jabbing his fork at the food on the plate before him*

"why not, Kim?" the teacher questioned*

"It’s no good," came the indignant answer*

**Have you ever tried it?" smiled the teacher*

**Nol" came the explosive retort*

"It’s very good," the teacher continued, and then drawing

several other children into the conversation she inquired, "Susie,

can your mother make macaroni and cheese?"

"Yes, but not as good as this I" exclaimed the child*

"Vfell, Robert," suggested the teacher turning to another

child, "supposing we start with you and go around the table listing

all the ingredients wo think wo might put into this casserole dish*

Let’s see if you’re all good chefs1"

112 Ruth G* Strickland, op* cit., p* 14=7* 168

So the cooking exploration started. No one paid any attention to Kim, hut the teaoher noticed that his fork m s visiting his plate rather frequently. Toward the end of the "llVhat’a in it?" quest, K.m surprised the group by announcing, "I think there’s something else in here, tool"

"Y/hat’s that?" someone wanted to know.

"I think it has just the teeniest bit of onionl" the reluctant taster proudly stated.

Not long after, the child’s mother asked the school dietitian for the latter*s macaroni and cheese recipe. "Kim just loves it," she explained, "but he never eats it at home. He says the school uses special ingredients!"

Some children even told of helping their mothers cook at home in order to find out the hidden details. Now, the lunch-time con­ versation often centered on "Do you know what ^ cooked?" achievements.

The previous story was a very elementary one, but, in its way, it illustrates what Kelley expressed here: "The capacity to become educated depends, it would seem, on the capacity of the individual to relinquish Tdiat he has held, and build new habit patterns in XIS keeping with new environmental demands."

Very often children and adults refuse to relinquish old ideas or ways if pushed or prodded or coaxed or cajoled. The "go ahead" signal is, to a large extent, a singularly internal something. The way can be indicated, some of the advantages can be surmised, but.

115 Kelley, op. bit., p. 52. 169 until the person himself is ready, a "-maiting for the kettle to boll" observation vrill do little good. Water does not boil until the fire is tot enough, and humans do not exert their energies until condi­ tions are right either.

"I want to make a papier roaohe oamel," said nine year old


"Goodl" exclaimed the teacher.

"Yes, but I don’t want to work in that gooky stuffI" fussed the child.

'You mean the wheat-flour-and-imter mixture?"

"Uh-huh, it’s gooky I "

"How else do you suggest doing papier mache?"

"I don’t know," the child lamented.

"Let’s go over and watch Jean work," the teaoher suggested.

"Look," said the teaoher working her hands in the paste mix­ ture, "It’s most pleasant to feel— just like lumpy gravy I"

"Lumpy grayyl" the child exclaimed, "Oh my," and a giggle popped out before it could be re-captured.

"Jean and the teaoher continued working with the paste, and

Merilee supervised the mixing. Was the "gravy" perhaps a bit too thick? Now too thin? Maybe a trifle lumpy? What "meat" would they use it on? Cutlet of newspapers? No? A pot roast of classified adstl this was a gay experience I

The next morning the child arrived in the room long before school commonood. She bustled into her smock, and then, without 170 asking assistance, she commenced to mix ■nheat-flour and m t e r in a

"basin. "Company for dinner tonight," she primly reminded herself*

"This must be special company gravy I" So she worked carrying on a bantering conversation with herself and enjoying the "gooky goo" immensely*

later, as the camel commenced to take form, she confided to another girl, "This is my prime-riba of oamel, and this is gooky- goo camel gravy 1 " Tîhereupon both children laughed in high glee.

A teasing humor will often entice vdien proof sometimes runs a-ground* Of this characteristic (in both Turtles and Man) the poet has said:

Too much of proof affronts Belief,— The Turtle will not try Unless you leave him; Then return— And he has hauled away. — Emily Dickinson,

Using Resiliency and Understanding to Meet Obstacles Bather than Resistanoy and Resentment

"Guess what I'm going to make todayl" Jerry demanded of the teacher*

"Can't guess. Telll" came the smiled reply*

"a headstoneI”

"a what?" the startled teacher demanded*

"You know, a headstone,” repeated the child*

"Jerry, do you know what a headstone is?" 171

yos, it’s the stone to put your name on in the cemetery."

"Tfoll* tell me, Jerry, 7jhy are you so interested in making a headstone on a nice spring day like this?” the teacher probed deeper*

"Because headstones cost a lot of money, and ray family is trying to e-oon-o-mize," the big vrord oame slovfly, "and the stuff here (indicating the clay and kiln) is all free> so" he wouhd up casually, "today I’m going to make a headstone."

"Em," mused the teacher.

"#iat?" asked the child.

"I was just thinking," mulled the teaoher, "Jerry, do you know how big you want your headstone to be?"

"Oh, about so big," said the child measuring a colossal marker in thé air*

"Pretty big, hm?" inquired the teacher*

"Yfell, it should be," reminded the child importantly, "because it has to have ray name and all about IÆ on it."

"Oh to be sure," agreed the teacher. "Well, it’s like this— let’s take a walk."

"Yilhere to?" agreed the would-be headstone maker*

"To look at our supply of clay and to take a peek inside the kiln," replied the teacher picking up a yardstick on the way.

So they walked to the clay bin and looked in. "Not very much clay today," observed the boy.

"Mnm, about enough for six medium-sized pots. I ’d say," guessed the teacher, and then they strolled over to the kiln. 172

"How big did you say, Jerry?" the teacher questioned.

The child obligingly demonstrated, and the teaoher measured and jotted down the oorresponding numbers. Next they measured the kiln.

"Huh," said the boy, "we*11 never got 'her* fired. 'She's* too bigj"

"Looks bad," agreed the teaoher, "and not enough clay today either. By the way, Jerry," she continued, "we*d not be able to say much on that headstone either, because we don't know enough about you yet. Maybe the marker could tell ;vhen you were born and that you wont to second grade, but if we*d fire it how would anyone know whom you married, how many children you had, or when you died?"

"Gee whiz, I hadn't thought of that," the child glumly consid­ ered, "They vrouldn't even know about all the wonderful things I'm going to do eitherI"

"No, and they might even think you were still alive, and that would be a silly headstoneI" the teacher suggested.

"You know, I think that's right," reasoned the boy, "I believe

I'd rather start a burlap embroidery today if you don't mind changing my plans. I'll do the headstone later...maybe in high school."

Children do get "big ideas," and some of them are wonderful and very possible, and others involve much more than young minds can com­ prehend in the quick dreams of childhood. To resist ideas with ultimatums delivered in negatives and scorn hurts children and builds up "can't do" worlds— worlds in which teachers and other unsympathetic 173

adults booome domiæeriEig ogres. Taking enough time to hoar a

child's ideas and helping him to realize the possibilities and/or

limitations usually gives him enough background to make his ovni

intelligent decisions. Not only does this m y of teacher-functioning

strengthen classroom rapport, but it also provides richer insights

into the "how does he tick" aspect of a child’s inner self*

The more little people and big learn to be resilient to each

other and to each other’s problems, the happier will become this world of adults and children, and the fewer disturbing differences there will be. Robert Frost knew this vdien he wrote:

"Men work together," I told him from the heart, "TiVhether they work together or apart." — Robert Frost.

Today the emphasis that is being placed on flexibility and

resiliency no longer reflects mere overtones of an attribute con­

sidered as being charming— it now reflects an urgent and vital neod

for today's world* Ashloy-Montagu says here: "...the probability

of survival of individual or living things increases with the degree

in which they harmoniously adjust themselves to each other and to

their environment."

114 Ashley-Mbntagu, op. cit., p. 44. 174

Reducing the Enormi-fay of Obstacles By a Realistic and Rational Acceptance

The teaoher stood and looked about her. The area had tables

■with chairs stacked haphazardly on them, light cords of various lengths supported dusty green fixtures. Some cords had been shortened by using a tongue depressor and a bit of string, and others dmgled bulbloss and sightless. Cupboard doors stood sleepily ajar showing paint brushes •with dirty faces and paper cups lined with a fuzzy fur of green mold. A bag of yarn spewed its tangled contents on the floor, and the floor itself was crusted %vlth a oonglomeration of old paint, dirt, and hard glue. "Vfell,” the teaoher mused to herself,

"one thing is certain. This place certainly doesn’t lack challenget" and then she nudged herself, "...or work either."

'M i * . n ' j y — • i "13%; t ...4.! _if

VI 175

She blew the dust from a chair and sat dovci to absorb the

room further. The m n d o w vra.s lovely, but it vrould look better framed

Tsith curtains and brightened ivith some plants along the sill. Maybe geraniums would be cheerful. The floor? Sanding and varnishing would improve that wonderfully, and the counters and work benches would respond to the same treatment, too. The lights, though old-fashioned, would be far less objectionable if the cords were equally cut and the shades were washed and cleaned. The furniture was uninspiring.

It was as if each tired piece wore a sign reading "Paint Me." A few pieces of furniture would lend themselves quite nicely to re-con­ struction.

"Space," thought the teacher, "iVhat we really need here is more space." Hral that was a big order. Then the word commenced to juggle about. Space for what? Space for planning, space for oil painting, space for water painting, space for wood and metal areas, space for tools and materials, space for clay work, space for resting...for dislays...for mobiles...for supplies, but, most of all, space for children— for living and learning and enjoying the wonder­ fulness of work. Sol The problem was one of planning areas.

Suddenly the wall took on a new aspect of usefulness. "You, my fine, up-standing friend," thought the planner tapping the one wall,

"you will make a magnificent easel! You're big and roomy, both high and low, and you're -wonderfully strong I A Celotex covering, two coats of paint, and -with a little abracadabra and a presto- chango we'll have you transformed." 176

Squares of gaily painted Celotex to fit the panes of glass dividing the area from adjacent ones also seemed to be a good idea.

Not only would these provide bold color* but they ivould make good display areas as ■well. Then* too* the many little compartment doors under the long built-in-work counter oould pick up some of the same oolor as the painted squares of Celotex concealing the glass panes#

Spaoe for storage? More shelves in one cabinet would add quantities of paper storage space, a cleaned up and re-painted clay bin with multiple compartments would males a fine y a m cabinet, a nevr garbage can all bright "with paint would do well as a clay container, and that old cart stuck back there in the c o m e r would certainly make an excellent portable paint carrierI

Visions of the room ;vith children vrorking in it floated leisurely past. "Not now* not now," the teacher said resolutely to the dream* "No* nor tomorrow either. Tomorrow," she informed her­ self firmly, "tomorrow we commence# Paint scraping and rough -work first— the ’pretties’ will oomo last of all."

M t h the aid of other ivilling hands, the room emerged all shiny bright and sparkly many moons and several backaches later#

The thrill oame ■vdth the excitement of children. "Oooool

It’s as happy as a circus 1" said one. "It’s got mirrors everywhere!" another exclaimed mtohing the light shine in luminous pools on the newly painted surfaces. "I never saw the ceiling before," another remarked as he commenced looking up# "Look!" said a little fellow. 177

"This room even has goldfish I It just has everything... and it’s


The room, ■was certainly not ideal. Ho, but it made the most of vihat it was, whero it was, and with wiiat resources there were available for its re-ooavorsion. To have said, "If only the room were thus and so, wo oould have such a fine program!" would have been one approach to the problem, but rarely does life operate so blandly or so conveniently. It presents the challenge, the anxiety, the obstacle, and seems to look around quizzically to see who’ll pick up the gauntlet. One modern playwright has stated this state of affairs so well here: 178

One almye thinks if only One particular unpleasantness Could he cleared up, life would become as promising As alv/ays it ims promising to be. But in fact we merely change anxieties# — Christopher Pry from: The Dark la light Enough#

Teachers, like all other people, have problems— anxieties#

Theirs are different only as these uniquely apply to given situations#

■Who doesn’t know of housing problems, scheduling problems, time problems, people problems, material problems, and even problems that seemingly have no resolution? Vdien such problems as the last loom up with no possible solution, it is futile to weep and wail, to ’’kick against the pricks," to let worrygiaw like a persistent mouse upon personal happiness# Such problems can only bo mat with the same rational acceptance and firmness that was accorded them long ago by a realistic London dramatist wiio wrote:

Things vdthout all remedy Should be without regard; what's done is done# — I'fi.lliam Shakespeare# from: Macbeth

Problems accepted realistioally are anxieties no more. Then they are transformed into challenges— quests to give one’s self a new dimension and an upward lift in the finding-out and the solving# To live life fully is to have quested richly and resiliently. Zirbea,

Tdio stands tall in her explorations and quests for better experiences in life and living, was quoted as saying; "Always have some quest in life, something to be going for, to be looking for# I always have 179 a little lot-doT,m foaling ■whan I achieve each quest until I put up a 115 new one* Life is a series of quests without end*

1X5 The Forman (XJclahom) Transcript, June 23, 1955< 180


'Snowy Night (Tempera) Ago 9

M l d Horae (Oil) Ago 9 182

High Street (chalk) ■Ago 9

1^ ^

Dovm the Hill (Block print on Cloth) Age 9 183


st. Stephen's Church (Tempera) Age 9 184

Boy Modeling (Oil) Ago 10 185

Falling Leaves (Oil) Age 10 186

People (Crayon Sketches Age 10 187

Collage Age 10 188


Oil Painting Ago 11 189

'Oil Painting Age 11 190


TiTater Color Age 11 CHAPTER VI


It is not Goethe who creates Faust, but Faust which creates Goethe. — G. G. Jung

A Repertoire of Beauty in Various Art Forms

Just as the child needs a growing repertoire of friends and acquaintances--the better to acquire a sympathetic flow of self

•with society, so, too, does he need an enlarging repertoire of vital experiences— the better to intelligently fit himself harmoniously with the culture. The child needs the aesthetic, emotional, and spiritual sensitizing with which expanding and deepening creative experiences with beauty ■will endow him. But what shall a child experience when he involves himself with beauty? The insightfulness of Keats still stands in a singular position:

"Beauty is truth, truth beauty— that is all Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know,"

Thus, if beauty is synonymous with truth, the child must express himself in his own symbols— symbols vdiioh represent honest, real, and valid involvement with the self. They must, too, speak for and of him with conveyed meanings of sincerity of purpose. Such integrity of action is the "open sesame" of the eiMrging self, and it is through such involvements of creating and living that the child oommonoes his understanding of -what Chaucer wrote so long ago*

- 191 - 192

’’Hold the high isnay, thy soul the pioneer. And Truth shall make thee free, there is no fearl"

The aim. of education, as Herbert Read conceives it, is to create artists— those "mho express themselves vrall "within a framework that is a repertoire of beauty:

Education is the fostering of gro"wth, but apart from physical maturation, growth is only made apparent in expression— audible or visible signs and symbols. Education may therefore be defined as the cultivation of modes of expression— it is teaching children and adults howto make sounds, images, movements, tools and uten­ sils. A man "who can make such things well is a well educated man. If he can make good sounds, he is a good speaker, a good musician, a good poet; if he can make good images, he is a good painter or sculptor; if good movements, a good dancer or labourer; if good tools or utensils, a good craftsman. All faculties, of thought, logic, memory, sensibility and intellect, are involved in such processes, and no aspect of eduoation is excluded in such processes. And they are all processes which in­ volve art, for art is nothing but the good making of sounds, images, etc. The aim of eduoation is therefore the creation of artists— of people efficient in the various modes of expression.

Of the appreciation of beauty Read says: ”...we only appro- 117 oiate beauty on the basis of our own creative aspirations...”

In this consideration, Dewey struck a someMiat fuller chord:

For to perceive, a beholder must create his own exper­ ience. And his creation must include' relations comparable to those which the original producer underwent...,'Without an act of recreation the object is not perceived as a work of art. The artist selected, simplified, clarified, abridged and condensed according to his interest. The be­ holder must go through these operations according to his point of view and interest.

^^®Road, op. cit., p. 11 # 117 Ibid., p. 292. o' Dewey, op. cit., p. 54. 195

For the child, appreciation might be considered as Lee and

Leo have conceived it here:

The child’s experience in self-expression through the arts gives a solid basis for appreciation. He, too, has created in similar media* He has met and solved some of the same problems, though undoubtedly not as well. But this very fact increases his admiration and understanding of the artist’s work, IVith such experiences as a back­ ground, he may pick out the parts played by various instru­ ments in an ensemble or orchestra and their contribution to the whole. He may see the effect of certain colors or lines or ways of composition. He may note the feeling given by the use of certain words or groups of words. But, the child’s comments on all these must be spontaneous and voluntary. He must not be required to make such analyses, nor must he be made to feel that he should. If such re­ actions are not easily forthcoming, a few sincere expres­ sions of the teacher’s own feelings should be all the stimulation necessary. And if such feelings are not present in the child, insisting tliat he express them only leads to hypocrisy.

A repertoire of beauty in the life of a child is often a composite thing— an unsegmented total devoid of categories and artificial barriers. Of this whole state Ruth Strickland writes:

The arts all work together for the child. Ho writes a story and illustrates it, or a letter to his mother and puts a gay border around it. He puts his v/ords into a tune or his tunes into rhythmic movement. A child does not think of his experiences in terms of adult categories of subject matter nor adult classification of experiences. Life is all of one piece for h i m . . . 120

Man’s repertoire of beauty is a highly personal involvement.

He creates and is created in the doing. He identifies self with glimpses of beauty and is himself refined. He expands his reach to

119 Lee and Leo, op. cit., pp. 593, 594. 120 Strickland, op. cit., p. 149. 194 augment his theme and discovers that he has become "a part of all that he has met." He stretches self the centuries to span and finds that

Then and Now are kindred in experiencing. Seeî Here is ItSan entreat­ ing Beauty when the centuries were Then:

In beauty happily I walk. "With beauty before me, I walk, yfith beauty behind me, I walk. M t h beauty below me, I walk. "ilfiLth beauty above me, I walk, ïïith beauty all around me, I walk.

It is finished again in beauty. It is finished in beauty. It is finished in beauty. It is finished in beauty. — Traditional Navajo Indian from: The Navaho Night Chant

And here is Man entreating Beauty when the centuries are Now:

0 World, I cannot hold thee close enoughI Thy winds, thy wide grey skies I Thy mists, that roll and risel Thy woods, this autumn day, that ache and sag And all but cry with color1 That gaunt crag To crushl To lift the loan of that black bluffI World, World, I cannot get thee close enoughI

Long have I known a glory in it all. But never knew I this; Here such a passion is As stretcheth me apart,— Lord, I do fear Thou’st made the world too beautiful this year; soul is all but out of me,— let fall No burning leaf; prithee, let no bird call. — Edna St. Vincent M l lay

Thus, it is through the tremendous involvement of needing and

searching, of experiencing and expressing, of forming and transforming tliat many men of many ages and of many unique variations transcend the 195 charaoteristios of maiay-nosa and are miraculously transfigured as one man— an understanding, communicating, sympathetic, perceiving

"being who through Time, Experience, and Faith moves ahead toivard a more glorious becoming.

There is only one man in the ivorld and his name is All Man. There is only one woman in the world and her name is All "'/"fomen. There is only one child in the world and the child’s name is All Children. — Carl Sandburg.

The repertoire of "beauty will not stay. It changes as the man who perceives it— who experiences it— and xvho assimilates and then transforms it into self. The spheres of life likewise are made of flux, and the tunes we piped as children now trill far away, but

Ifemory plays a descant to our changing roundelay.

Yet all experience is an arch whorothro’

Gleams that untravel’d world, v A i o s o margin fades Forever and forever when I move. — Tennyson from: "Ulysses”

Providing Certain Situations

True and vital involvements in various art forms are generally the commencement of a type of grovrbh and behavior that moves aivay from the narrow limits of self-consciousness and progresses toward the fuller realization of person— tovreird a new personal dimension which the child finds through a developing self-awareness...a sensing

of his own creative potential, a visualizing beyond the "I" to the 196 yot nebulous possibilities of the "me," and a giving to one's self an objective perspective of the reach and stature to be found in and through the richer concept of beauty.

The more a child involves himself v/ith vital art forms— with a repertoire of beauty, the better will he communicate vdth the offerings of others. Thus, as he truly experiences, so does ho more truly appreciate— i.e., does he "value at a price"...the price of honesty, sincerity, depth of expression, the simplicity of truth, and the strength with which the artist and art form communicate to him.

Just as it is groivth giving for children to appreciate and communicate rd-th the beauty in the art forms of contemporary "others" and with the "knovms" in the various art fields, so, too, is it invigorating for children to step back the better to view objectively their own work when it is placed in a setting where it vdll merit this communication and consideration by themselves and others.

Children can and do, for example, meaningfully incorporate their art forms into such creative situations as those; oMldron'a own assemblies, children's school publications, letters and greeting cards, expressions of thanks and gifts, dramatic presentations which might involve any or all of these media— and the dance, and there are, of course, other fine experiences in and through which children may participate creatively and purpose­ fully. These might include a junior council, clubs, school committees, service projects, inter-communication services, radio programs,

T-V activities, and various other audio-visual involvements. 197

Lee and Lee quoting from the Tvrenty-Second Yearbook of the

Department of Elementary School Principals list these significant aspects of elementary program planning:

The most significant features of programs for the ethical and social development of pupils were listed by over a himdred elementary principals. Their responses listed in the order of their apparent importance were:

1. Original programs initiated, developed, and presented bypapils with a minimum of teacher supervi­ sion, and grovdng out of school and classroom activities. a. Dramatization: plays, pageants, reviews of activity units, puppet shows and scenes; par­ ticularly those ivritten, prepared, and directed by the children. b. Assemblies conducted by the children; each grade in turn takes charge of the assembly accord­ ing to a schedules plan; class president or chair­ man presides, principal and teacher remaining in the background.

2. Mjsic: community singing, school orchestras, bands, glee clubs, rhythm bands, harmonica bands, individual school songs, and music appreciation by means of radio and phonograph records.

3. Visual presentation: slides, particularly those prepared by pupils; silent and sound films; shadow graphs; chalk-talks; and picture talks for art apprecia­ tion.

4. Student-council reports and discussions on school problems; safety patrols, sanitation squads. Bed Cross participation, health records and school citizenship.

5. "Outside" speakers and performers.

The point stressed by these experienced principals is the need for programs to be developed by the children. This emphasis on creative work is an outgroivth of the changing philosophy of the elementary s c h o o l . 1 2 1

121 Lee and Lee, op. cit., pp. 269, 270. 198

A Tory simple heterogeneous program prepared by upper elementary school children for their parents is presented on page 199»

The planning nms done by the children, the program v/as their own, and they designed the cover and ran the programs on the school duplicat­ ing machine.

On pages 200 through 203 are samples of children’s witlng and accompanying illustrations taken from "Buckeye Leaves," the annual student publication of the University School of The Ohio State

University, One of the delights of this publication is that the work of young children mingles vdth that of their seniors. Interestingly enough, this particular publication had its origin in the elemontary school, and it was the younger oliildren who decided to sliare their

"book” with the older groups. 199

SIXTH (SRfi DE I- AMILY Qpr-'l Q5,I9s-j-


I 200 LITTLE BLACKNOSE hy M argaret D eatherage, 4th Grade Toot! Toot! It was Little Blacknose pull­ ing out of the station for the first time from Albany to Schenectady. He was one of the first trains in the United States of America. He had five coaches. Each coach looked like a big wooden stage coach. Little Blacknose’s real name was De- Witt Clinton. Wood was used for fuel in the fire-box. One time, a lady riding in one of the coaches began jumping up and down. Her hat had caught fire from a spark from the engine. This all happened in the year 1831.

m k m

s I


m WSi


4th Grade 201


By Susan Kirshbaum, 2nd Grade

The shark said, "Tifhat is going on around hero?"

The little fish said from above, "You should know* They are dropping an anchor from a ship."

Below the shark was an old sunlcen pirate ship* Again, the little fish said, "YJhero are you going, big shark?"

The shark answered, "I am just swimming around to see what I can find." The shark was hungry* He thought about eating the little fish above him so he snapped at him* He missed him* The little fish was glad. Ho swam away and the big shark did not see any more of him* 202 205

THE BUNNY AND THE FARMER hy E lizabeth Sillens, 2nd Grade A bunny went a-hopping To see what he could see. Then he saw some carrots And hopped away to eat.

Then the farmer came To catch that little bunny. The bunny saw the farmer And hopped away from him. 204

Like a first pair of trousers# like new pennies from the mint— Is to see for the first time Our own words in print* — llauree Applegate

The ohance for discovering the value and worth of one's own creative efforts is greatly augmented when the child can. see his work in printed form. Maures Applegate puts a knowing finger on that phase of the creative pulse here:

Creative writing gives children something to be proud of. I have seen apparently colorless personalities blossom under the warm sun of approval when their poems or stories were read to the class or were published in the class story book. I have seen these same children gain in confidence and poise, and I have noticed that for the first time they had a sense of pride in them­ selves as human beings. Pride is the starch which puts a bit of stiffening into limp folks whom the washing machine of life has subjected to rough treatment. A teacher who judges the efficacy of creative -writing by what it has done to the writer -will use entirely different standards for judging the writing than will the teacher who is engrossed with the writing as an end in itself. ^ 2 2

Fortunate the adult vrtio is the trusted recipient of the delight­ ful offerings a child may proffer from his owm imaginative storehouse, for as Applegate points out:

A child will no sooner -bum out the pockets of his mind to one he does not trust than a shy boy -will turn out the treasures of his trousers pocket to a stranger. He has so many wonderings, questions, fears, and dreamsi l i a # and so few adult friends with whom he can share them.123

122 Applegate, op. cit., p. 3, 123 Ibid., p . 1. 205

Here are four poems given as a "goodbye" gift to a teacher by a most sensitive and loving sixth grade girl. Treasure indeedI


The waves roll in. The sky is blue. The sun shines bright on the golden sand. The brooklet runs to meet the sea From the still and tranquil forest land.

The sea-shells sparkle In the sun.

The gulls go wheeling in the s k y . The pine trees whisper in a breeze YJhen a breeze goes blowing by.

I’m far from the noisy Outside world. In a tranquil world of my own. Broken by only the sea-gulls cries From the quiet cliffs of stone. — G. S.


Laughing, gurgling on its way. Sparkling, twinkling in the light. Flowing through the sunny day And the dark mysterious night.

Frothing at a waterfall. Rippling o’er each pebble bright. Plowing through the forest tall And back into the warm sunlight.

On and on and on it slips It outs through hills it cannot climb. Out to sea to meet the ships It hurries not, it knows not time. — G« S. 206


Today is a lazy, lazy day. The sun shines lazily vjay up high. The creamy clouds in the blue, blue sky Float lazily, lazily, lazily by.

Oh to lie in the grass so green. Oh to vratoh the clouds drift by. Oh to smell the flowers sweet. I’ve got spring fever. Oh myI S.


A oat has soft and silent feet They hardly make a noise They do not patter down the street like those of little boys.

And when we children are in bed. And fast asleep you Icnow, The cat slips out the kitchen door To prowl in soft white snow.

A oat eats fish and milk and mice ■Which I don't think are very nice But kitty loves so very much The mouse which Mother will not touch.

I love to watch the oat recline. Before I claim the fireside mine. And shoo him out the kitchen door To roam about the snow once more. — G. S.

And here is another "gift" that came tightly folded and, vdion no one was looking, "was poked hurriedly into the teacher's coat pocket. This poem was written by a seventh grade girl who seemed dull and withdrawn: 207

As I sit looking over the land All bro-vm and green, I think what God has given me. And I should like to give Him Something for it.

As I sit looking over the people That God has made, I think the world is good. And the grass looks to the sky. And the people look to the sky.

And I thought Vfe should not hurt the land All broivn and green. Or the trees. Or the people. Or the world That God has made for all. -“Florence

The teacher asked and received permission to share the poem with the total group, but the child insisted that it be read anony­ mously. After the group expressed true appreciation for the poem’s sincerity and beauty, the child let her name be shared, too* T/hen a very talented classmate showered the young writer with, "Vdiy,

Florence, it’s beautifulI Do write some more1" the sheer joy and thanks that glowed on the girl’s face was proof of the verbal pudding that Mauree Applegate "baked” here :

Yiflaat does creative writing do for boys and girls other than to help them to express themselves better? (And, goodness knows, they need that.) For one thing it provides them with chimneys. Look around you at the happiest folks. They are those who have discovered chimneys to release their inner steam and pressuro.^^^

124 Ibid., p . 2. 208

If a cut-and-come again garden of variegated verses is to be groTwn and enjoyed, all children will need the sincere inspiration, appreciation and receptiveness that a truly vra.m and understanding teacher can give. Listen to Applegate here:

If you really appreciate the writing your children do, they will write more. Praise is as powerful as "Vigoro" in causing growth. "I do like that poem Susie made yes­ terday, " will bring forth any number of new sprouts. Seeing the poem printed in the class poetry book or posted in a conspicuous place is another poem-produoer« But do not make the mistake of praising and posting only the best verso. Praise and post the best lines of each child. A garden plot with a single brilliant rose bush may look loveliest to an artist. But i^at about all the little petunias and bachelor buttons just longing to grace a garden?^^®

Like poetry, children's letters— when free and childlike— provide wonderfully creative outlets, too. The sight of the postman and his mysterious bag is often enough to spur on many children in a "do-it-yourself" quest, but with others there must be a little

"boost" and a "talking about" to set the "yeast" into action. Ethel

Mabie Falk observes here:

If we want children to write letters, I think we must saturate them vdth ideas for writing and with the feeling that letters are as natural and as necessary as conversation,

This same author furthers her thinking about children's letter writing needs hero :

^^^Ibid., p. 19. 2gg Ethel l&.bie Falk, "Letters to Enrich Children's Experience," Elementary English Review 18 (March, 1941), p. 79* 209

• ••ignoring all else that -we might "wish to teach about letters, if tito achieve only one goal, ennoyment of letter writing, all the rest will come easily• No rules for good letters can be given because every letter is an individual problem. % a t shall be said and how it shall be said depend upon the person who is to receive the letter, his dispotition, his interest in the writer, and the situation that oalls for the letter. Nothing is less interesting than the child’s letter that has obviously been dictated by an adult• Children sometimes embarrass their teachers and parents by their frankness and their naive disregard of convention, yet those very qualities constitute the charm of their speech and letters• Gradually, they will learn to sense the many "mustn’t say that's" of our conventional social intercourse, but let us not rob then of all spon­ taneity and naturalness of expression and make them— too early— the kind of dull, reluctant letter writers that most of us have become

The "mustn’t say that’s" sometimes come a little tardy, and one family cherishes a rather surprising and spontaneous letter written by a very young lady who had weighty problems on her seven- year-old mind. The following letter was sent without parental knowledge to a grandmother who, fortunately, had a very good sense of humor:

Dear Grandmother

I am a Babtist. Mother says you are nuthing.

I hop you go to hevun.

X Love


Applegate sets somewhat higher standards for letter writing here:

127 I'hid., p. 82* 210

Too many elementary toachors judge children's letters by adult standards « Children talk naturally and freely to the people with nshom they feel at ease. Help them to ■write in the same way. I shall never forgot a fourth- grade girl who wrote to me, after I had gone av/ay from the city where she lived, and said, "Vfe miss you very much, but we will get over it.” How wise the child who, at the ago of nine, knows that we eventually get over the things we miss. An adult knows that this statement is ^ true, but would never have said it in a letter. Do not try to make adults of children. Help to make them more observant and more thoughtful children,

And here are some "when to”si'fcuations, as Applegate conceives them— the times when letter writing is meaningful as a creative activity for children:

Some classes in school write letters to the children in the next room. It is well all through the elementary grades to practice the little niceties of living in real situations if possible. One schoolroom has this motto on the ■wall: "If you can’t say it, write it." This terse statement summarizes well when to write notes and when to talk. Ninety-five per cent of our daily ooLimunication is oral, and only five per cent is "written. It is real living, therefore, to talk our messages when ■we have the opportunity to write them "when we must,129

Another vital channel through "which children may discover many possibilities for doing creative "v/riting is the school news­ paper. Here are some of the values one author feels may be found in such creative venture:

No one particularly writing experience capitalizes on more of the natural bents of children than does the school ne-wspaper. It is the children’s otvn project— they plan it, tind name it, and write it; they correct it, they eval­ uate it, they type it (if they can), they duplicate it.

128 Applegate, op. cit., p. 115, 129 Ibid., p. 120. 211

and they deliver it. The teacher is the advisor and the mentor only. Children of varying abilities are assigned to the various tasks, and shifts in personnel are made several times a year to allow for wider personal develop­ ment.

A school newspaper gives children the activity they seek. Reporting done on the run is twice as interesting as a composition conceived and written at the ordinary school desk. The meeting vdth other members of the school staff in committees is stimulating and different from ’’ordinary ole school."

Publishing a school newspaper produces good social

habits, as v i e i l as better habits of vnriting. It gives a child practice in planning, in tvorking with others, in doing a careful piece of work, in evaluating, and in getting work done on time. These by-products of news­ paper writing are more important to democratic living than is the inherent worth of the newspaper itself.loO

-Sometimes children, individually or as a group, thrill to

rising to a new level of communication— one in which the symbols are

quite different and loss familiar. Misic, when viewed as a written

form of communication, poses a fair share of symbol hazards, but if these can be surmounted thrillingly and challengingly the quest for

further adventure goes a-pace.

Sometimes, and especially with very young children, the teacher records children’s tunes, rhythms, and songs, but, later,

children M i l want to participate in recording their own music.

% e n this is a true and spontaneous desire,advantage should be taken

of it, and children should be given the joy of learning to read and

express themselves in this new medium.

130 Ibid., pp. 153-154. 212

Hero is a song— ausio and poetry— composed by a fourth grade

group v/hich "was deeply engrossed in an Indian unit. Each child made his otm copy o f the song, and, in addition, some children made lovely Indian borders around the music’s edge, many played the

song’s rhythm on an Indian drum, others were able to play the music

on special instruments, the 7fhole group danced to the music and sang the song, and the school used it as the "germ" around which a rich and sensitive Thanksgiving program was based#

-9 Ewe__cÊ._J_ .1 k .. ■a

Oh give thanks to Can- tan- to-wit. The giv-

er of all good, îbr the groin. For tie

good rain and the sun-shine, R>r the kindness of Can-

> TP:

liü i .i m m ^ tan-to-vdt. Oh- ah- ah. Oh- ah— ah. 213

The authors, Leo and Lee, present ways in ■which children can. be helped to achieve in producing their own musically creative ex­ periences Î

One first step is to molce the child realize that music is a language and that he can express his feelings through it. Unless there is a specific discussion of this, chil­ dren feel that the writing of music is only done by a few- talented adults and is entirely beyond them. The idea of expressing themselves through original music may never occur to them. Composing music as a group is a good first step. It inspires and opens possibilities. lüany teachers use this procedure to a considerable extent throughout the grades.

The next requirement is a richness of experience from vdiich pupils derive feelings ■which they -wish to express. This point can not be too greatly emphasized. It is only ■when the child is experiencing fully, mentally, emotion­ ally, physically, that he has the unconquerable desire to express these feelings. Then, if the medium of music oomes to mind and ho has had some experience iifith it, it is likely that he may express himself through it.

This expression must come at the time of the inspira­ tion or feeling. It cannot fit into a program, be regulated by the clock. There can be no period set aside in ivhich each child is expected to create music. Rather, the teacher must be alive to the signs and take advantage of a child's feelings at the time he wishes to express them. The teacher, hovrever, may have in mind setting up a situation which vrould likely result in creative musical expression.

The Tjriting down of this spontaneous music must first be entirely the teacher's responsibility. Later the group as a Thole •bakes part, perhaps by the fourth grade, depend­ ing on the children's interest and desire to learn the techniques. Beyond this group participation in notation of their nusic, oomes the 'va'iting of his own music by the individual child. This may or may not occur in elementary school, depending entirely on the interests and abilities of the pupils.

The (treating of music often stimulates oreativenoss in other fields. Words are given to make a song of music, usually at the same time, though sometimes before and some- 214

times after. Often art is brought in as the children illustrate the thoughts and feelings they have expressed in vrords and music. 151

This gregarious nature, this affinity for ’’spilling over,” this delightful camaraderie— this is one of the moat thrilling characteristics of the arts. Listen, for example, to an art teacher here; ’’’Fifth grade having trouble with the mural you say?

Rough time with the sea, huh? How about Debussy’s Le Ifer? listen­ ing might help them solve their problem. It rolls and has quiet 132 parts also. IvQ.ght do the job.'”

like Barkus, the arts ’’are willing'”— they are flexible,

resilient, and flowing. Listen to a child sing as he paints^ as he dances, or as he skips down the long street of ohildhoodl

We are the fairies of the land*. Ch, are the

a i É ? fai-ries of the land of the land of the land I

This was the plaintive tune that heralded the approach of

five sun-suited little people skipping and dancing down a side-walk

131 Lee and Lee, op. cit., p. 607. 132 ■'Association for Childhood Education International, Art for Children's Growing (Washington, D. C.; Association for Childhood Eduoation International, 1955), p. 42* 215 that was to them, at least, filament of fairy dust. One was be­ decked with a clover lei, the next carried a feather plume in her hand, another fluttered a sheer pink scarf behind her as she danced a weaving skip through the weft of morning sunlight, and the last carried a sturdy zinnia whose bright petals were plucked and thrown to the breeze i-vhenever the dancer felt the desire I The "fairies of the land" know no artistic "fences," for, like most children, they combined art forms freely and joyfully*

Perhaps it is children who most nearly answer the "how doth the,.." enigma of a "busy little bee’s" delight in the cross- fertilization process of the arts, for it is children vjho~if per­ mitted— "improve each shining hour" through creative activity and transformation,

"Today," says one, "let’s be fairies I"

One makes a posy garland for himself, another waves aloft a brilliant petaled flower, and the creative whole commences. Fairies

dance and fairies sing— children dance and children singI Fairies

do thus and fairies do so— children are fairies in movement also.

If they need to pick from a cluster of arts, they pick. To children, the arts grovf in a wonderful heterogeneous garden which is "free for the picking," In this true "kindergarten," children find that the more freely they move among the flowers— the more abundantly do the blossoms growl Like the bee, they who seek the honey prove the

flower* 216

A Cross-Grade Exparienoe m t h Creativity

There are times in school life and living vdien total group

activities seem highly desirable, but the energizer for such exper­

iences often has quite a chance and unexpected beginning* Such m s the case in the folloiNing developments at the University School

(The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio)*

In the fall of 1954, the seven-year-olds became quite en­

chanted vdth a new children’s publication titled Pet of the Met.

The story m s about the very cultured Petrini mouse family ■whoso

distinguished residence m s a harp case in the attic of the Metro­

politan Opera House* Soon the charm of this mousie tale -was also

discovered by the six-year-olds and their neighbors, the eight-year-

olds* In general, the agreement seemed to be that here, indeed, m s a delightful story for children— a very just-right narrative*

Meanwhile, the eleven-year-old group m s finding many sat­

isfactions in Thurber’s story. The Thirteen Clocks* Those children had transformed the story into a play, they had dramatized it, and,

as a group, they were quite imbued -with the story’s subtleties and whimsical -writing*

The mid-year holidays came and -went, and in a January staff meeting the elementary teachers commenced to play with the idea that maybe— just maybe— a total elementary school performance involving

selective experience in the arts field would be a richly remrding

experience for all elementary children* It would also be most

interesting, they unanimously agreed, to experiment -vdth cross-grade 217

groupings in this proposed involvement* Such was the "kick off”

into a four month adventure* To expedite matters, a sub-committee

■was appointed to consider some possible materials— music, litera-bure,

and other airt forms*

Believing that ohildron should be vitally concerned ■with such

a planning program, the teachers carried back the staff tliinking to

their classrooms* Miat did the children think of such a plan? Vdiat

possibilities did children see as tentative themes on -which to build

a larger program?

Two weeks later the staff met again bringing children’s

idoas, sub-committee ideas, and individual thinking into the dis­

cussion* At this time the following possibilities were submitted

as suggestions on which further thinking, discussing, and reviewing might be iTOrthy; Schumann’s Scenes from Childhood, Pet of the Ifet,

Midsummer Wight’s Dream (music and story). The Emperor’s New Clothes,

Thirteen Clocks, and The Great Quillow*

Furthermore, it was observed that certain selected ideas from

the Thurber stories (the Thirteen Clocks and The Great Quillow) might

■well lend themselves to the Schumann music as would some of the Milne

stories* On this and other matters the staff agreed to report back

at the next meeting which was set for February seventh* The results

of this kind of exploration with children was to be reviewed, and

at this meeting also a theme was to be selected*

Now, in connection -with the selected possibilities, group

teachers and children began a critical examination of the delimited 218 materials* Since the sixth grade children had had the deepest in­ volvements ivith the Thurber stories, they shared some of their knowl­ edge with younger oliildren, and the younger children gladly shared their copy of Pat of the Met with the upper elementary school*

Everyone seemed to have at least a nodding acquaintance with the

Emperor * s New Clothes, so this posed no special problem* The third grade had "met" the Midsummer Mght*s Dream on a children's record the year before, and they were quite delighted with its enchantment, but other groups wore less informed* Throughout the lower school, however, only a few scattered children recognized parts of

Schumann’s music, so this was the possibility that was the least known*

To augment their limited knowledge children engaged in various

IcLnds of experiences* Story telling, listening to music, dramatiz­ ing whole stories and special parts of plots, involving rest time as a literary and musical absorbing time, having Insightful group discussions about the "why*s" of preferences and the "how might w e ’ s" of presentation, sharing cross-grade activities involving formerly listed experiences plus dancing and singing, inviting several oliildren to play their musical instruments for the total grade group so that they might better recognize "magic flutes," etc., that were discussed in some of the stories, and engaging in the painting of impressions concerning stories, stage sets, costumes, and other pertinent things of interest* 219

Prior to the mid-year holidays, the related arts area had fallen heir to two very distinguished and gentle mice* Ifother Mouse ims a glossy black* Of course, no one knew which was Father and

■vdiich was Llother until— but that’s running ahead of the storyl

It is sufficient to say that children throughout the school were utterly delighted with the mice, and the mice seemed to have a reciprocal affection for the children*

It was at this auspicious period of momentous decision in

February, 1955, when Mr* and Firs* Mouse took it upon themselves to announce their identity and to beget nine lovely babiesI These off­ spring confused things somewiiat for some were brown, others were black, but one was a pure white mousieJ

Interest in all things IÆ0U3E trebled in no time at all, and although Mrs* Mouse, with some "outside" assistance, posted a rigid visiting hour schedule on her front door there were always curious noses pressed firmly against the separating screen*

Need it be said? The dye was cast— the ballot box was grossly stuffed— and the school’s children voted "Mouse" in an over­ whelming majority Then they finally selected as a presentation theme

The Pet of the Met!

The official recording of the choosing of a theme ims placed on the elementary staff bulletin, February 7, 1955* Here it was stated*

Pet of the Met was selected as the theme for the Elementary

Spring Program* 220

1* All grade groups saw possibilities in. this theme*

2, î.îodifications in terms of different musical, dance, and art actiTities are to he made within the theme as group work fur­ thers with it*

3* Individuals in various groups who become interested and

"lead out" are to make up a coordinating committee for the project.

4. Communication among teachers and groups involved is to be emphasized to make cross-grade grouping and planning possible*

Shortly thereafter on February the tenth the notes from the

Junior Council indicated that the children were giving very serious consideration to the "how to" problem of converting the story of

Pet of the Ifet into a play of much larger dimensions. Here is the children’s thinking:

Some ideas to enlarge Pet of the Met are: Have audience and actors change places Have two families of mice The cat could have kittens Ask the orchestra to help Have some choruses Have Mr. Terbeok bring Rosooe (a puppet) for one part Have singing, dancing, a ball and fiestas Use the Magic Flute and other operas, such as: Hansel and Gretel, Alda, Pagliaccl, M l l i a m Tell, Midsummer Might’s Dream, and TiVinnie the Pooh.

Since the plot of the story involved complications concerning:

(li) The Petrini mouse family, (2) a green-eyed cat named Mefisto, and (3) an exciting performance of the opera. The Magic Flute, these elements of the plot were the ones on which children focused their enlargements* 221

Again, further progress is noted in Junior Council minutes of February 17, 1955. Here the children wrote:

Several groups have read Hansel and Gretel and thought it would be very good for an operetta in Pet of the Met. Also some groups have been singing some of the songs and listening to some records about the Magic Flute «

There was a growing concern, and greater activity in the classrooms ivhioh centered more and more on this new commitment "wiiioh children and teachers had agreed upon jointly.

All elementary children ivere learning to recognize parts of the music from The Magio Flute, and the second grade group had risen to now heights in discovering that, with help, they were able to read a simplified libretto of Hansel and Gretel.

First graders, who had been dancing and singing and play­ acting Hansel and Gretel, now interpreted their ideas about the opera by painting a mural of this story. During the painting process such conversations as these bubbled and brewed:

"Not all trees are the same color. Your tree is fine, but

I ’ll paint mine this chartreuse I"

"Did Gretel really wear a ballet outfit like they showed the

other night on television?"

"Let's make Hansel and Gretel's house a plain brown."

" Why?"

"Well, they didn't have enough money to paint it."

"Okay, but let’s put in a rose bush— a big one. Even poor 222 people have flovrers.”

"You made the dew fairy too big. She’s as big as people!"

"Ooooool I just love painting this gingerbread house. It makes me hungry every time I paint a doughnut."

"Hov/'d you make sky color anyway? I want that real soft baby blue. Is it mostly vdiite?"

"This is a pretty good picture, I think."

Forgotten are the cans of spilled paint— the green "spill" became a tree anyway! Forgotten, too, are the many trips children made to clean brushes, to cliange pails of vrnter, and to sponge up the "drips." Just a fusion of the whole, the fun of working to­ gether and the loveliness of the mural, remains.

First graders were also beginning to find for themselves the

Bumperdinck tunes on the piano. It was a one-finger process, but the melodies emerged, and the thrill of achievement ims guito obvious.

lÆLke in the third grade shared his Book House version of

Midsummer Might' s Dream v/ith his group, and Susie shared her records of the same story. The music’s enchantment and the story’s delight prompted these children to explore quite richly into possibilities those media offered for dance, art, and play acting.

Hansel and Gretel climbed the stairs to the fourth grade at about the same time that Peter Pan captivated children on T-7* The latter story immediately lent big ideas to the former. "Vi/hy," children demanded, "couldn’t the fourteen angels in Hansel and Gretel 223

fly in and out?”

"But how?" questioned one doubting Thomas.

"Well, reasoned one of the^rls, "we could swing from the balcony on those gym ropes and then slide down."

"Say, that's a neat idea, Joanel" approved another.

"Ydiat kind of costumes will angels wear?” awked M s s Morris.

"Oh, vdiite with real full skirts and lots of glitter and wings and all that stuff, you know. "

"Well," commented the teacher v/ith a quirky smile, "how vri.ll a

costume like that look coming dovm a rope?"

"Oh that's easyl" came the answer, "All of us girls who are

angels could wear blue jeans underneathI"

Angels in blue jeans I Things were really rushing along.

Somewhere in early ISarch the decision was reached that Hansel

and Gretel, Mdsummer Night's Dream, and the Magic Flute vrould be the three operas which would be included in the total production. That

Mdsummer Night's Dream was not a true opera vas discussed ivith the

children, but since it had elements of opera and since it had been

given by the Wells Saddler Company at the Metropolitan Opera House

during the early autumn season, 1954, the children decided it must

be included.

Assemblies to "shape up" learnings and thinking came next.

There were musical mornings, play-acting meetings, heterogeneous

assemblies (singing, acting, dancing, listening, etc.), and all these

activities commenced pulling together the play fragments into a more 224 clearly and cleanly defined -wholeo

Children, too, started identifying themselves -with the play.

Some wanted to be gingerbread ohildron, others saw themselves as fairies, quite a few chose to be the undulating serpent in the Magic

Flute, and one very tall second grade boy desired above all else to be a rug on -cidiich the fairy queen. Titania, would walkl

One of the interesting problems -was the mobility of choice.

One day a child chose to be this, and the next day he shed that part to assume another! The result vrais that for an interval of several weeks the big question was, "Yfell, today have you really decided with which group you will choose to work?" But an even more inter­ esting and rev/arding result vrais that all children knew a great deal about all the parts and saw for themselves the play as a whole.

Gradually, the children arranged themselves into three major groupings. Hansel and Gretel was elected by children in the four- and five-year-old kindergarten, by first and second graders, and by a few children from the upper elementary school ("Mother and Father and the Witch just have to be BIG!" the little children reminded). Mid­ summer Might's Dream drew from grades two, three, and four and also included a few kindergarten children. The Magic Flute was made up chiefly of upper elementary children— grades four, five, and six.

Bather suddenly, or so it seemed, the date was March 50, 1955, and the staff struggled with "thinking through" and planning for nearly five hours one long afternoon. Hero is the summary that emerged from that important session* 225

Pet of Mat

Staff Meeting Wednesday, Maroh 30

Present : Loomis, Morris, Utterback, TiVilsberg, Sohatz, Swales, Klohr, Ort, Wimmer, Snyder, Tolbert


I Reported values observed in cross-grade grouping experiences

1) Interest and willingness to practice parts with small children by upper grade representatives.

2) Feeling of belonging and common concern for development of project apparent.

S) Sequence of scenes clarified better.

4) Creative thinking about ’hvhat can be done,”

5 ) Older children patient vdth young ones and helpful. Younger children trying,

6) Representatives reporting back to grade groups with enthusiasm.

II Problems

1 ) Communication at staff level, availability of staff

2 ) Size of groups

3 ) Needs for materials

4 ) Scheduling cross grade groups

Decisions 8

I Special Schedule for April 4 - 8 9:15 Spécial 9:15- Special 9:15 Hansel & To B e 9:15 Chorus Groupa 10:00 Groups Gretel Â. M. in Kdgn—1» & 2 — Arranged Room 100 Hansel & Gretel 11:15 in Eocm 100 Yfed. 10:15 to Magic Hansel & Gretel (later in gym) Flute 11:20- 4, 5, 6

1:30- lad summer 1:30 lüd Summer 2:00 Staff Wight’s Wight’8 Planning P. M, >f 3:00 Dream Dream Lunchroom

Z t Z f 4 2, 3, 4

ÏO M 0> 227

Pet of liîat

Hansel and Gretel

1 Cottage Night in Witch's Gingerbread Scene Woods House Children

Pet of lÆet

Orchestra (Nocturne)

Midsummer Night's Dream

In the Bottom* s Preparation Wedding Forest Play for Wedding

Pet of 14et

Orchestra (Overture)

liîagic Flute

Opening Scene Tamino Papageno Animals Monostatos

Flute Chimes

Pet of Met 228

Hansel and Gretel

I Characters II Groups

Hansel Dancers for Cottage Dance Gretel Mother Morning Scene - Birds, Peter, the father Flowers, Trees Sand Man Dew Fairy Angels m t c h Jack in the Pulpit Forest - Birds, Flovrers, Trees, Night Scene III Song Listt Gingerbread Children *Susie Little Susie ♦Brother Gome and Dance IV Dances - ♦Peter’s Song ♦Little lüan in the Woods Brother Come and Dance Sandman’s Song Father and Mother ♦Prayer Sandman and woods creatures Dew Fairy's Song Angels Witch’s Song Dew Fairy Gingerbread Children Gingerbread Children ♦The Witch Is Dead Prayer

V Parts to emphasizes

1. Work on dramatic action with character group 2* Gingerbread Children's Dance and Song 3. Angel's Scene 4» Make three smaller special groups for Monday and Tuesday work*

VI Schedule

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 9:15 - 11:15 9:15 - 10:00 9:15 To be 9:15 Special Special All - R. 100 Arranged Chorus Groups Groups later gym 2:00 Staff Plan­ ning

Scenes : I In the Cottage II Night in the Woods III Mtch'a House IV Gingerbread Children 229

Mdsunaner Night’s Dream Grades 2, 3, 4

I Characters II Groups

Fairy Queen Court Fairy King Court Puck 5 helpers (Hjstard Seed Puseblossom) Bottom Clowns (Quince, Bottom, Flute Starveling. Snug, Snout) Orchestra Leader Orchestra IiHnister Wedding parties

III Dances t IV Dramati os

In the forest Bottom's Play Puck and Helpers Preparation for Wedding VI Arts Clowns Make instruments T Instrumental



Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thurs day Friday April 4 April 5 April 6

1:30 - 3:00 1:30 - 3:00 Meeting To be 9:15 Chorus R. 100 R. 100 2:00 Arranged 2,3,4 grades Gym - 2,3,4 2 & 4 choose

Suggested points to be emphasized: 1. Big movements needed. As girls used in making cake 2. Meaning of graoiousness for bridal parties 3. Make toy instruments* Demonstrate how to play with real instru­ ments, as flutes, bassoons, string bass, violins, etc, 4. Acrobatic stunts for clowns - as lynn Wilson 5. Introduce characters from story again 6» Watch 4th grade act out excerpt of Nick Bottom and actors in play

Scenes t I In the Forest II Preparation for Wedding

III Bottom's Play IV Wedding 230

Magic Flute

I Characters II Groups

Tamino jhiimals Serpent Servants Papageno Ladies in Waiting Fomina Monostatos IT Instrumental & orchestra

III Songs 1. Overture 2* Flute recording of Papageno’s Song Tamino’s Song Magic Chimes Music 3. Magic Chimes Music Padlock Song

Scenes :

I Opening Scene - In the Forest Tamino and Serpent Ladies in miting kill serpent Admire Tamino, run to tell Queen of might Papageno comes to catch birds Tamino avsakens and credits Papageno -with saving his life Ladies in■waiting return, put padlock on Papageno Give portrait to Tamino and get them to search for Papageno

II Monostatos holds Pamina a captive Papageno and Mbnostato meet and frighten each other Papageno helps Pamina escape

III Papageno plays chimes - charms Mbnostato and Servants vdio dance

IT Tamino plays flute - animals of forest are charmed and dance

Schedule for week - April 4-8

Next combined work session: Tuesday - 10:15 Thursday - to be arranged Chorus on Friday 9:15

Staff meeting on Wednesday 2:00 p.m. lunchroom 2SX

Ohildron were no leas concerned m t h ’’moving ahead” and

”foHotgirig through” in planning, and the minutes of the Junior Coimoil meeting of Ma.roh 31, 1955, indicate that interest*

Pet of the hfet

The question of the date of Pot of the Met ims raised* The date that was moat convenient for the school vnas Friday, îlay 20th at 7*15 P.M.

Vfe asked the grades to discuss different ways Junior Council could help with Pet of the Mat. Suggestions other than the ones in last vreok’s minutes were: Lighting, ushering and getting group to­ gether to do those things* The suggestion was made that the Petrinis dream, kddaummer Eight’s Dream.

Also the suggestion of making your ovm costumes for Pet of the Met was given. It isn’t too soon to begin thinking about tliem.

By this time most children had found the special group in -which they preferred to -work, but some children were still trying-out for the main character spots. As one girl stated a little later, ’’It surely has been fUn trying out for all the parts (this she did), but now that the try-outs are over I don’t know what I’ll do.”

It might be added that she took her part of Court Announcer and did a very splendid piece of work, but more than anything else slie really enjoyed "try-outs.”

At all the rehearsals, groups of representative children from other grades "sat in." These children were the constructive critics vdio shared their criticisms and who reported back to their evai ago groups what they had seen and hotv it involved the play as a -whole* The aesthetic and critical appreciations of children -were deepening and broadening, as were their understanding concerning the relationships of things and people -within the play*

It was a kindergarten -bet who told ter mother that she was to bo a ”bear-trainer” in Pet of the Met. "A bear trainedexclaimed the 232 mother, ”Tlïhy, how will you do your part?"

"Like this," explained the child as she daintily lifted the invisible ends of a bride's long traini Bear-trainer or train-bearer1

"What confusing things words are I

Aid a fourth grader found that words are troublesome, too.

T/hen acting out the role as the aggressive Bully Bottom, the child wanted to use words that smacked of ye olde marrie Blngland. Out of the hat cams such phrases as: Fie upon thee %, Thou art a goosel. Fiddle­ sticks t, M*lords, and Prithee. One day the child stopped short in her usually fluent acting and said, "I just can't use that word any more."

"IVhat vrord is that?" asked a teacher.

"That word 'prithee*," came the child's red-faced ansvrer.

"iVhy not?" the teacher queried further.

"It's not nice."

"Ifot nice?"

"IIo. Somebody said it was that out-of-door place I"

So the story of how words became condensed had to be told then and there. From "I pray throe" to "prithee" as compared to "God be with you" to "goodbye" was the story told to the child. Now the vrord could be decently and acceptably used. Learning takes one down such devious paths.

The last of April v/as busy* Following is a schedule of hoi? one vmek looked on papers e i m u t a e y st af f Special SCHEDULE FOR IVEEK OF APRIL 25 - 29 Please note changes Each teacher: Please remind your groups of their appointments

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 8:00 Conference 8:00 Conference 9:15 Midsummer 9:15 Pet of Met TH-lsherg-Ort Morris - Ort Bottom's Play Cast Room 100 - Ort Gym - Loomis 9:40 Hansel & Gretel 9:15 Hansel & Gretel 10:00 Hansel & Gretel Gingerbread Chil­ Forest Night Scene 9:15 I&dsummer Speaking parts 9:15 Staging Com-

dren - Gym - Gym Gremlins Sandman & Dew mittee - Tolbert Swales - Wllsberg Gym - inmmer Fairies - Gym - Gym - Tolbert Woodberry - Stewart Hoffman, Evans

10:30 Mdaummer 10:00 ÏÆidsummer 11:00 Magic Flute 10:30 Hansel & Gret* Titania, Oberon Yifedding Scene - Tamino & Serpent Gingerbread Gremlins, Puck all Gremlins Room 108 - Children Clowns Bridal parties, Tolbert Gym - Schatz Gym - Tolbert etc. Tolbert Orchestra Gym - Wimmer

1:00 liO-dsummer 1:00 To be 1:45 Midsummer » Room 108 Gremlins arranged by All parts in­ 1:00 Magic Flute Room 100 - Tdmmer Miss Vdmmer cluding Serpent Bottom's Play Tamino Ladles Scene 1 ivill practice part of this time in 108 ELEMEKTAEÏ STAFF (cont.)

Monday Tuesday , Wednesday Thursday Friday Room 108 2î00 Magio Flute 2:00 Magio Flute 3:30 Pet of Met 2:00 Magic Flute Animais Serrants Staff Planning Papageno Toom 100 - Vfi.mmer Room 100 - Wimmer Meeting - Monostatos Lunchroom Pamina 2:00 Pet of Met Servants Room 215 - Loomis 2:00 Student Council LUss Loomis Room 215

ro 235

Mishrooms, serpents, ladies-in-v/aiting, wild animals I These characters and many more presented costume problems, but costuming

•was kept at the ’’suggestion" level--at a level in xvhich children could help and do— in part or in I'sholo. Mushrooms vere created by kinder­ garteners sitting under umbrellas ivhlch had pasted-on spots. Each

’’part" of the segmented serpent -was a child clad in black tights and

■wearing a hood (each child made his own) vdiich "was studded with glitter glaze. Ladies-in-waiting -wore elogant cheese cloth stoles, costume jev/elry, fans, frilly blouses, and long skirts. The wild animals

•went sleuthing on their ovm and tracked down gaudy animal oos-tumes

which v / e r e "left overs" from Hall ovm ’ en.

Simplicity ‘was the keynote for staging also. The first and second graders decorated a gingerbread house and made their own cage and oven. It ivas in the process of making the out-of-door oven that one child remarked, "The oven should be painted a dark terra cotta,

I believe, because it’s a clay oven, you knovf."

One child spent hours producing a poster ivhich was to be used as a stage prop. Nothing but her best was good enough for Maribeth even though the poster ivas to be used rather momentarily and seen from a distance. This was her part, and she lavished great care in the doing and completed a handsome piece of work. This type of enthusi­ asm maintained Itself in all that children did in making the play a live and glotving production.

Difficult final projects were shaping up, too. Lighting, curtaining, the making of programs, seating arrangements for children 236 and guests, lists of properties, and the hundred and one other things that are production "have to's" were identified by children and teachers and were conscientiously and intelligently cared for*

The last part of the play vnas not developed. The coordinating thread, the Mouse story, was woven in and around the three opera themes. Throe sixth-grade girls wrote this final bit of script ivhich pulled together the plays within a play*

Pet of the Met Adapted by C, C, D. B. G. W.


P. P. - Papa Petrini R - Say M. P* - Mama Petrini M - Mea D - Doe Prom. - Prompter

(in the Ifouse House) Petrini Dancing to Magic Flute

P. P. Oh I almost forgot. I'm to turn the pages for the prompter tonight. We're going to do Hansel and Gretel,

Little Mice all together plead* Let us gel Papal Please let us go. Daddy1

M, P. No, ny dears, it's too late for you to be out.

P. P. Yes, besides, there is a oat down there named Mefisto. You can't go out when he's out. little Mice* A oat I

M. P. Yes, a catI Now let's go to bed.

M. P. Now, dbn't cry. I'll tell you the story of Hansel and Gretel. 237

Little M c e j Oh, goody I

Mother starts story - fade out-

Hansel and Gretel on main stage

Then Mother finishes story back in Mouse House

M. P. And they lived happily ever after.

D« Oh, Mommy, tell us anotherI

R. Yes, Mommy do toll us another.

M. P. Not tonight, but if you are good tomorrow, I vd.ll tell you Mdsuramer Night’s Dream again.

Little Mice; Oh goodyI 'Night Mommy.

Mother hums tune

Midsummer Night’s Dream on main stage

Next morning back in Mouse House

M. P. Time to get up ohildrenl little Mice yawn and got up to go to breakfast

D. Ify, I had a nice dream last night.

R. TAIhat did you dream?

D, I dreamed about Midsummer Night's Dream

M. So did II

R. I did tool

M. P. I wonder how that happened? Oh, I know - that Midsummer Night's Dream Music I sang to you last night.

Little Mice: Oh, yes, that could have beent 238

P. Po (Oh, yes) Say, I almost forgotI I have a poster for you and a nice surprise. The prompter gave me this last night and told me there would be a children’s opera this afternoon and your mother and I thought you might like to go, since it is to be the Magic FluteI little Mice: Oh, Boy I Yippee I Oh, goody I

M, P» Now, you must all go and clean up. Make sure your ears are clean. You don’t want to miss a single note I

(Mice wash ears and mother comes to Inspect them)

P, P, Let’s go now. I won’t be able to go all the way with you because I must hurry on to the proiqpter’s box.

In the Prompter’s Box,

Prom, Now see here, my pet, we must do extra well today. The children deserve the very beat you know,

P, P, Yes, I will.

The Magic Flute on main stage. Animals dance here,

P. gets charmed and starts to dance

Prom, Come back here, PetriniI

Mefisto jumps on him then becomes charmed too,

(Prompter pulls in Petrini)

Prom, Come here I You have to make up your mind, right now, whether you want to be a page turner or an opera star. I have a good notion to hire Mefisto, p. Oh, no I I will be a page turner, I will never be an opera star again,


The Petrini Family and Mefisto arm in arm. 239

Mille the greater number of children were dancing, singing,

and dramatizing the play, there was another group of select children who, as orchestra members, devoted their time to the many instrumental rehearsals necessary to perform the very lovely music that the play included. That Mr. Snyder, the teacher, spent over forty hours arrang­ ing the music inspired these children to exert themselves beyond their usual limits of performance. Knowing, too, that the orchestra included upper school students gave the younger members from the elementary

school a deep sense of pride and responsibility. It was during this

intense period, many parents later commented, that children did their most meaningful practice.

Those last week rehearsalst Everyone felt just as amazed and

excited as the VAiite Rabbit in Alice in IVonderland who kept exclaiming,

"Oh, my soul and whiskers I" And the questions: VJhere, or where, will

all these children sit? % o has the Donkey head? VJhy can’t we sing

back stage? Miat does it matter if we poke our heads under the

curtain? '«Mhat happened to the music? Vfl.ll we over be really ready?

Etc., etc., etc.

Wo were.

Perhaps one of the highlights was the morning performance given

for the upper school. Children "on stage" interacted with their older

peers in the audience in a way that was truly a delight to watch.

The evening performance, given for parents and friends, was beautiful

to witness, too, but some of the glitter that children achieved %Mhen

communicating with other children was not there. 240

t» 240

The Elementary Children


University School


adapted from the storybook Pet of the Met, by Lydia and Don Freeman The Viking Press "

The Ohio State University

University School Gymnasium

May 18 at 10:00 A.M. May 19 at 7:30 P.M.

1955 The Scenei

_Qrch0str.i (Pet of t'>e Mot CX^crtorc) hom*o of Pot of the Net

From Hansel and Gretel

Cottage Scene Forest Scene Witch*s House

Home of Pet of the Met

Orchestra (Noctnrne)

From Midsummer Night * s Dream

The Fairy Court j Bottom1*8 Play Wedding Scene

Home of Pet of the Met

Orchestra (Overture)

From The Magic Flute

Realm of W ood s Queen of the Night Monostato*s Palace Nearby

5^ Finale Musical Numbers

Ouverture to Pet of thê Met Excerpts arranged by Mr*, Snyder

Junior Orchestra

Hansel and Gretel Humperd inck Susie ; Little Susie Hansel, Gretel, Chorus Brother, Come and Dance Hansel, Gretel, Kindergarten dancers Peter’s Sorg Father Little Man in the Woods Gretel, Chorus Sandman’s Song and Dance Sandman Prayer, "Fourteen Angels" Chorus, Angel’s Dance Interlude, Prayer Orchestra Morning Dance Dew Fairies Nibble, Nibble Mousie Hocus jPocus Witch The Witch is Gone, Song and Dance -Gingerbread Children, Cast and Chorus Mn d suTrii.ier Night ’ s Dreum Mendelssohn Noctui'ne Orchestra Overture Puck, Titania, Fairy Court, Oberon, Spirits, Clowns with Bottom’s Play Scherzo Woodland, Spirits Wedding Orchestra, Minister, Wedding attendants Helena, Lysender, Hermia, Demetrius, Guests

Ifeglc Flute Mozart Orchestra Overture Arranged by Mr, Snyder Overture, record ed Tamino. Serpent, Ladies in-Waiting Solo-The Bindman’s Song Fapgino Solc-Song of the Portrait Tamino Due-That is the Devil Monostatoc and Papagine Solo-The Manly Heart Famine Duet-We must find Tain'ino Paminu aid Papagino Magic C Musi c Crcli-: at:' a Magic I'lute Music and Flnad- Orchestra ar. -, PET OF THE IvET

The Petrini Family lived in the attic of the Metropolitan Opera House in an old for­ gotten harp case. Maestro Petrini worked for his daily cheese dovrnstairs in the opera house as a page turner for the prompter. Next to his family— Madame Petr ini, and the three teeny-weeny Petrini. Doe Ray, and Mee— he loved the opera * As our story opens, the Petrinis are dancing their favorite dance from their favorite opera, the Animal Dance in the MAGIC FLUTE, Debby Berry


The Mouse Family I4aestro Petr ini Frank Darby 5 Fred Deatherage 6 Understudy i^dame Petrini Barbara Heiks 4 Garrett Nanny 5 Understudy

Teeny-Weeny Petrinis Doe— Liz Sillins 2 Ray— Jimmy Miller 2 Mee— Ann Saslaw 1

Mefisto— the cat— Grace Seiberling 6 Cynthia Coon 6 \


The Scene opens lAere Hansel and Gretel were called by their father and were told to do some works

Instead of working they danced and sang» Their mother came home and was very cross at them* She sent them to the woods to pick berries»

They got lost and fell asleep» Fourteen angels came to watch over them*

In the morning when they woke up, they found a little house made of all kinds of cookies and candy so they started to eat some® Out of the little house came the m t c h and she caught them* But they tricked her and pushed her into the oven* Hansel and Gretel saw the cookie children and freed them* Hansel and Gretel's father and mother came and they took all the children home to their own Families *

Maribeth Evans Mary Louise Laughlin

5 ca st - AlfD (}RT%TEIj

Hother îîary Louise Laughlin 6 Maribeth Evans 6 Understudy

Father Peter Thorpe 6 John Lehoczlcy 6 Understudy

Gretel Ronnie Farher 1 Nancy Goodson 1 Understudy

Hansel Alan Sticloaey 2 Bill Hanly 1 Understudy

Dancers Margaret Mikelson SK Christine Ernst 5K Pam Rybak Ricky Potter Stevie Beyer 5K Jon Chafetz 5K

Sandmen Nancy Fenholt 1 Angela Seiberling 1

Angels Donnie Becker I4.K Janet Mikelson Uk Judy Smith I|K Lynn Rutherford 1 Ellen Woodberry 1 Kip Kuntz 1 Demtt Mason 1 Merry Thorpe Chippy Vorhees 5K Judy Becker 5>K Natasha Cowan 2 Susan Fitts 2 Cynthia Barnett 2 Christine Wendt 2-

Dew Fairies Sue Ellen Smith 2 Lucyann Kerry 5K Jeanie Rotter 2

Witch Sylvia Neilson

Gingerbread Children John Vokor 1 Kathy Morris 1 I,ynda Lee Latham 1 Cathy Jucius 1 Frank Loi-nu'’ 1 Tommy Herman 1 Joanna Van Wormer 1 Thominy Randall J. Kenny t/abman 1 Carol Johnson 1 Paul Hoffman 1 Bill Hanly 1 ' Debby McClung 1 Teddy Hess 1 Nancy Good son 1 Katie Hess 2 Sherman Randall 2 Jon Kennedy


Trees Jimmy Heiks 5K Stevie Skilken Johnny Weaver 5K

Mushrooms Adrian Stilson 5K Mike Trudeau $K Fred Smith

Butterflies Nancy Weingarth 5K Suzanne Simpson $K

Strawberries Karen Sa slaw 4-K Barbara End ter 4-K Francie Barton 4-K

Ja ck- i.n-hhe-pi ilpit Dickie Volker 5K Philip Stickney

Birds Jimmy Patterson 4K Tim Hustaine 4-K Chris Sicaras 5K Billy Hull 5K

Flowers Ralphie Lowry 4K Greg Trudeau J+K Rosemary Cox 4-K Renata Jones 5K


Our adaptation of 14id suioiaer Night^ s Dream takes place in a forest near the city of Athens, Fairies^ Queen Titania and King Oberon have had an argument* Oberon goes into the forest to seek reconciliation* He and his elf, Purk, play a trick in Titania, by placing juice from a magic flower in her eyes, so she will fall in love with the first person she sees on awakening.

In the meantime. Bottom and a band of rowdy clowns come into the forest to prac­ tice their play for the wedding of some lovers from Athens,

Puck mischievously changes BottonH s head into that of a donkey. Titania, upon awaken­ ing, falls in love with the donkey. Oberon and Puck, feeling remorse, break the spell, restore Bottom and Titania to their natural state.

The preparation and the wedding of the lovers from Athens proceeds.

Nell Morris

O Ca st - Mid summer Night ^ s Dream

Puck Peter Mikelson 3

Titania Abbie McClintock 3

Queen ^ s Court Peaseblossom Margaret Blac!a/ood A Peaseblossom Elaine Campbell 3 Moth Ann Parie Mickle 4- Moth Jean Mueller 3 Cobweb Leslie Hauck 3 Cobweb Lynn Wilson 3 Mustard Seed Aleta Sunico 3

Oberon and Court Oberon Keith Fisher 4 Jeffrey Smith 3 Ihidoi-aiudy Guards in Obérants Court Jeffrey Smith 3 Billy Priest 2

Queen of Gremli ns Wendy Hess 3 Gremlins Tony Talat 3, George Marshall 2, David Baker 2, Roger Louis 2^ Warren Campbell 2^ Billy Priest 2 Steffanie Woodruff 3- Sue Carroll McClung 3, Mimi Williams 4; Sandra Sunico4- David Raduege 4, Margaret Deatherage 4 Bottom( s Flay Bottom Genny Laughlin 4 Flute Kathy Eveland 4 Snout Mike McCoy 3 Quince John Fitts 4 Snug Mark Reynard 4 Starveling Christopher Seiberling 3 9 Wedding Scene Preparation for vjedding Gremlins (listed before)

Wedding Bridos Janice Higgy 3 Lynn Skilken 2

Grooms Alan Reichert 3 Danny Nemzer 2

Flower Girls Susan Robison 3 Ann Shaw 4

Train Bearers Nickie McCoy K Karen Jones K David Tolbert K Lucia Buchanan K

Minister Richard Belzer 3 Allen Cohen 3 Understudy

Orchestra Leader Howard Ramseur 3

Orchestra Members Allen Cohen 3 Charles Reichert 3 Denis Eastman 3 Curt Morris 3 Jay Graf 2 Eddie Cox 2 Susan Kirschbaum 2 Robin Foshay 2

Court Announcer Sandra Shaffer 4


Tmiino^ a princguts lost in a foi-usL in the realm oT the Queen oi‘ the Night:,» JusL as he shoots his last arrow_, a terrible sei-pcnit comes fro 1 the woods. After a sti'ugglo; uhiL:h he is likely to lose, he faints. The ladies- in-waiting kill the serpent^ and give Tajnine a portrait of Pamna_, the beautiful daughter of the Queen.

Tcim.ino sets out to rescue hei" with Pap ageiio^ the foolish bii-d-c.i tcher. papagcJîU finds his way to,the palace of the Vieked Monos tales who holds PcUiiina captive. As Pap- agono and Paiin.ria ai'e escaping^ Monos tat os and his slaves capture- them. Put Papageno plays 'the magic chimes given him by the ladies- in-waiting for times of danger, and they are charmedo Papegeno and Pamina escape.

Meanwhile^ Tamino^ lost in a forest^ plays the Magic Flute to guide the others to him. The animals are charmed and dance— (This is almost the end of our adaptation). The real story goes on,

Graco S eib Cast - The Magic Fluto

Tamino l&ke Mooney 5 John Shaw 5 Understudy

The Serpent Allinson Randall 5 Bill Hess 6 Bucky Reynolds 5 Paul Neil sen 6 Leonard Shartle 5 Maribeth Evans 6 Caroline Hildreth 6 Ilary Louise Laughlin 6

Ladies in Linda Marco 5 Jane Taylor 5 Waiting Anne Venard 5 Karon MuLlor 5 JoAnn Vorhees 5 Vicki Bowen 5 Elaine Morris 5 Debby Berry 6 Natalie Zubcr

Papageno Dick Baker 5 Ricky Morris 5 Understudy

Pamina Harriet Williams 6 Pat Pfeiffer 6

Monostates Eddie Violet 6 Jimmy Ansman 5 Understudy

Slaves Don Prebus 4 Mark Sommer 4 Harold Giles 4 Chris Wickens' 4 Franklin Seiberling 4 Lary Larson 6 Ricky îforris 5

A n i m a l : Jonc D ever eaux 4 Donald Smith 5 Mary Livingston 4 Gail VJilliams 6 Grace Seiberling 6 Cynthia Coon 6 Mary Ellen Anderson 6 Laurel Sillins 5 Peter Woodruff 5 Danny Reuter 5 James Bitonte 5

Papagena Nanny Garrett 5

(2 Junior Orchestra

for ”Pet of the Met”

Viol ins i'lute 8 Bonnie Kay 8 Almus Thorp 8 Joel Barkan 8 Karen Follis 7 Harriet Hess 8 Sylvia Flanders 6 Carl Wolfrom 7 Marguerite Robbins 5 Margaret Van Ness 8 Ann Hanna 8 Clar inet.i Patty Pfeiffer 6 John Cowan 6 Frances Edse 6 Peter Thorp 6 Lynn McCallister 8 Carlo Wolff 6 Marcia Sommer 6 Donald Prebus k Saxophones Marty Lewis 8 Vi olas Skip Woodruff 8 Nancy Heiks 8 Charlotte Jones 8 Trumpets Nelson Robbins 8 Cello Eddie Violet 6 Connie Foshay 8 Randy Livingston 8

Bass Horn Bob Hughes 8 Christ Marco 7 Percussion Neils Keiper 7 Phil Heine 8 Trombone Hans Bozler 5 Bruce Kay 6

Grades 4-5-8-7*-'B 13 OUR THANK,

To all of the parents^ student^ and teachers who helped with this production in ways too numerous to mention other than those which follow;

Program Cover Margaret Blackiwod h

Scence îîice Grace Seiberling 6

Script for Magic Cynthia Coon 6 Flute and Pet of Helpers; Debby Berry 6 Met Gai], Williams 6

Flute Jane Tener 11

Lighting Bill Hess 6 Paul Neilsen 6 and Properties John Lechoczkji" 6 Grank Darby 5 Fred Deatherage 6 Dave Clark IZ

Ushers James Bit ont e 5 Jimmy Arism^an ^ John Shaw 5 John Weaver 1;

Junior Council

, J- The Elementary School production^ Pet of the Metg is an endeavor to bring the creative needs of children into focus through two special objectives beyond those that continuously give direction to curriculum at University School«

These two special objectives are:

1) to plan with children and the several special area teachers of the elementary staff a curricular experience that will help the participants make new and larger integrations among the various special areas and their own ongoing group studies, and

2) to design with children and the elementary staff a curricular experience that will "cut across" grade groups in ways which tend to invite and foster creativity in learning and working together*

As you view this production, may we encourage you to help us evaluate it in the light of these objectives*

Staff Planning Group Pet of the Met staff Group

Mary Tolbert Paul Klohr

Carl Snyder Herbert Goon

Lorreno Qrt Cecile Si-jales

Shirley Wimmer Marcia Stewart

Lewis Evans Martha Woodberry

Margaret Stanton Nell Morris

William Jennings Roberta Uttorback

Eleanor Becker Esther Schatz

Justine Froelich Mary Wilsberg

Caroline G John Tibbett

I-lary Jane Loomis

16 241

Thon it "was all over and only memories, some pictures, and a program remained. But -was this all?

Then came the thinking back and the evaluating. Here are some thoughts expressed by the children*

A third grader said that she kept searching for some part that she could really do well. She chose to be a clown because she thought she was a good acrobat, but she discovered that there were others who

■wore better, so she had to improve.

A boy said he had learned that it didn't make any difference who you were in the play, but the important thing was to do your part really well.

Nearly all children felt that they had learned much about dance— its design elements, how better to make body movements meaningfully and how to fit the movements to the music.

One child hold Mrs. Swales in high esteem because this teacher discovered that a child's name had been ometted in the program and she corrected the omission.

Children became aware of many more children in the school.

A kindergarten child exclaimed as he saw a fourth grade child, "Oh, there's Bottoml There’s Bottoml"

Children in the same family reported that they enjoyed having the opportunity of working together.

Mark developed such an interest in the music in the play that he wrote to \TOSU requesting that they play all the selections used in

Pet of the Met on his favorite program. . 242

All ohildron felt that not only had they learned "v/orlds” about music, art, dance, instruments, literature, and self-discipline, but they had also grown to know so many people « . .teachers and stu­ dents*..who had been merely faces to them before. ’’It’s fun,” one child remarked,” to be able to say ’hello' to all these now friends in the school.”

These were some of the many evaluations made by children, and here is one other that stands quite apart in its sensitiveness of evaluation. It was written as part of a letter to the v/riter’s sister, but it was graciously shared with the school when the request for it was made knoivnt

At home, 8atp.rclay, m y 21, 1955

Last Thursday evening I went to the University School . to the Spring Festival of the elementary division. It t o s so lovely and so right for children, tool They had developed an operetta based on the book PET OF THE IffiT, a story about a mouse at the Metropolitan Opera House, Ho had the nerve to raise his family and live in an Old Harp case in the store-room behind stageI Of course, his whole family attended all the performances I You can see how that could be used in the development of àn operetta in which scenes from Hansel and Gretel, The m g i o Flute and Midsummer Night’s Dream could be included. About a hundred children and about a score of under­ studies were in it— others wore in some behind-the- scenes role. The cast with the participation of some of the understudies had performed before the High School at an assembly in the morning— instead of a dress rehearsal.

The wiiole thing— dancing, speaking, action, and set­ ting— bespoke the values of spontaneity that creative experience seeks to foster in a good school. The children participated so whole-heartedly and naturally that parents must surely have sensed the difference between that and the things that go with a more formal ’’production" in 243

■which children are involved. The youngsters had made the adaptations and developed the continuity vriith teacher guidance. The plans or rather the continuous planning involved all staff members ■who had any relationship to the children in the regular curricular experiences and involved the children too* The groups were purposely composed of mixed age-levels. Thus •srtien the angel choir sang and flitted about, vAiile "guardian angels" was played by the school’s junior orchestra, and Hansel and Gretel slept, and the ivee mice ■with their perky pink-lined ears peeped over the balcony rail, I could have vre_pt for children who miss such happiness as part of their education. There were angels, some boys, some girls but not paired by sex* The two littlest angels ■were from the four-year kindergar­ ten, I think, and they swooped and wafted their ■wings in rhythmic response to the music, and led the groupI Their costuming was so simple, and not uniform. They were all in white and all had a yard and a fraction of filmy white material attached to their backs by being gathered in the middle. They held one corner of it in each hand as they "flew" barefoot, and waved their ""wings." One of the ■woo angels was black and some of the others were, too. The lead mouse was black— and others, too, but after noting it, one forgot about that, or almost did, and then realized ivhat it meant*

Hot a teacher in evidence during the performance, but there must have been some behind the scenes, to explain the seemingly inevitable smoothness of the flow as groups enter­ ed or exited and scene followed scene, I drifted through the classrooms on the vra,y up to the gym where the whole thing ■was staged, ■with the audience seated in tiers at one end and in the balcony* There was no tension, and the children looked so happy as they moved about in orderly but free play and conversation ■while their teachers greeted parents and helped adjust wings, tail feathers, flower caps or furbelows I They were enjoying themselves while ■waiting. They were quiet, but not too quiet as they would have been if they had been made to sit still. I noticed that there were some dance groups and spontaneous troups of assorted players taking full advantage of the fact that folks were in costume to use it as a chance to make up and act out their own creative fantasies* liVhat matter if there was only one tree or one pair of angels, or one flower mixed in ■with some ginger cookies or animals or toadstools while the others were in other classrooms all waiting to be escorted up to their entrances at the proper cues* They could put on plays and dances of their own for themselves meanwhile, and be the more relaxed and ready for that and for what came after, when they 244 aat on the floor in front of the audience as privileged observers and joined in on the singing*

The-îri&orous and comical parts— dialogue, dance, pantomime, acrobatics, etc.%-were indeed humorous, and the children "mho took those parts were particularly free and at ease in them* Puck was so puckyl Titania was so queenly, even vdth Bottom, who was a scream! The witch was in character every minute and the dialogue and action wore so well coordinated espec­ ially in the f\inny parts that were supposed to be funny! There was nothing self-conscious about the v/ay the big boys in main roles said their princely lines and did their "busi­ ness.” No clovming on the part of property men or scene shifters*

The mimeographed programs were distributed by children who served as ushers* They were decorated with colored cover pictures of the mice, and they contained a diagram of the con­ tinuity, a list of all participants and understudies, and ex­ planations of the sequences and scenes written and signed by their writers— some children— some staff* There was also a statement on the way the staff was evaluating the whole experi­ ence from inception to conclusion, and a suggestion that parents join in by contributing their evaluations. As a basis for that, the program carried the story of how the thing developed, who was responsible for what, how the special area people became the resource people for the production, how the other staff people cooperated with each other and with the children of other teachers, how the children were in on the continuous planning, and how this sort of a curricular experi­ ence seemed to offer values and contribute to children’s needs in ways which were quite different from those of regular class activities in which each class worked vrith its teacher with access to special personnel and facilities scheduled in the program, whereas in this experience the art, the music, the literature, the physical education and other things were all fused and the children were not sorted by grade or age levels* The parents were asked to note the adjustment and responsibility expected, and also the effects on their chil­ dren* They wore in fact given the criteria by which the staff was evaluating the experience* Isn’t that interesting as a supplement to "reports to parents," as usually— or formerly- conceived? I just couldn’t resist sharing all this with you, and also the acknowledgment that I felt like a regular or a foster parent or both as I saw so many of my former students and their children and so many of my friends and their children enjoying it "in the round." Aftenmrd I circulated to express my enjoyment to them and whoever!. I was introduced by the physical education teacher to her two young children vAiom I had 245

never met. The youngest was 4 or 5— a boy. He peered up at me and smiled when I said, *'KVhy, you were an ange 11 I saw you 'v’dien you had your wings on and were singing to Hansel and Gretell” He answered me though we had been friends for long— ’’And did you see me when I had to jump over the mushroom that was in my way? I had to do something, I couldn’t yell at him to move over, and I couldn’t just stand still and stop the showl” I said, "Of course notI You did exactly the right thing I" His sister had been a gingerbread girl but she beamed at him now in sisterly fashion. Two sisters vdio had parts had to be told how much I enjoyed each one before I could inquire how baby sister was coming along. They informed me that she was no longer a baby, and would be in the kindergarten next falll And, I added, in the festival next year? O^e of "my" girls, now a oollego senior doing her student teaching in the high school after doing her elementary student teaching, as a dual certificate person, was there with her father to see her brother in the show, but also to see the others, she told me. She was formerly a student in the school so she knew what to expect. A former associate novf also father of a high school senior in the school was there with his wife on the recommenda­ tion of his son who had been at the assembly performance and had also been in the elementary school. That lasting interest and good relationship between elementary and seoondaxy students is something which the separation of the two in separate schools misses, too. I think if the tmxth vrere told some folkd who were there came vdth backgrounds of similar experiences there through the years, which led them to feel sure they were in for an enjoyable evening.

(signed) Laura Zirbes

Here, indeed, was an experience rich in the doing, the growing, and the lifting of sights. Ivlany of its values could only be knovm by those who did the experiencing, for who’s to say what a child carries away with him nevrly incorporated into self? There were other values, however, the essence of which was suggested in the writing, ivhich may be referred to as illustrative of values to be sought and related in other "festivals" and the like. 246


The Mouse Family at Breakfast 248

LHoe (Silkscreen) Age 10 249

.Three elementary "bakers" carefully decorate the wedding cake for the Mdsummer Night *s

Dream. Another classmate pre­ pares a portable base* 250

Painting scenery for The tiagio Flute 251

Tito fourth grade girls paint a giraffe head used in the animal scone of The Magic Flute 252

Three sixth grade girls make silk-screened program covers. 253


Bigger hands help smaller hands pull a silk- soreen squeegee.

Two sixth graders show younger children the thrill of malcing a silk screen program cover. 254

A poster is made announcing the approach­ ing festival* 255

Tvro aijcbh-grado boys learn the intricacies of handling the lights on cue. 256

J i toaoher ties on an angel's cheese­ cloth "-wings." 257


The "Dew Fairy” tinklos an anklet of bells ■while some "angels” and a "Jack-in-the-

Pulpit” watch# 258

On stage I Two kindergarten "mushrooms" act their part vriLth serious mien. (Soeiio from:

Hansel and Gretel) 259

'■ u i ■■ I? :

The abracadabra of the vatoh’s rcagic has ensnared Hansel and Gretel. The Gingerbread

Children surrounding the House of Goodies vmtch

Avith mixed emotions (Scene from; Hansel and Gretel). 260

Actors in one scene become audience in anotherI Here a "bird," a "flower," two

"strawberry plants" and fellow Lilliput

Thespians watch with utter absorption as the play goes on* 261

The thrill of the v/edding scene in

Midsummer Might's Dreamt Here come the bridal attendants in wide-eyed wonder1 262


*'Do you take this beautiful

•woman to be yo u r lav/fully vradded


And from under-the-ourtain and behind-tho-props peep faces waiting for the anticipated "I do I”

(Scene from: Mdsumitier Night's Dream) 263

"I can. do anything 1 " brags a boastful Bottom. (Soone from:

Mdsummer Eight's Dream) 264


A spritely ’’Pack” about to complete the transformation of Bully Bottom into a donkey,

(Scene from; Midsummer M ^ h t ’s Dream) 265

icûr 3

"Now oMldron," Ifother Mouse admon­ ishes, "carry your tails nicely and do remember to pork up your ears I"

Father Mouse adjusts his tie before escorting his proud family to the opera* 266

P amim struggles prettily against the vdles of the crafty Monostatos and his "slaves.” CHAPTER TII


V7e need to build happy memories and write them into our personalities. — Laura Zirbes •


It is the goodness of today that makes possible the happy memories on which to build the joys of ensuing tomorrows, and this, it Tfould seem— this rich experiential and on-going happiness— is one of the greatest contributions that true and vital creativity can make in all classrooms everywhere. It is this broadly conceived

"happiness" which creative teachers try to evoke in the classroom:

— when they seek to capitalize on the inter-related aspects of the arts so that children may comprehend a new richness and a new happiness through a more unified form of beauty.

— when they seek to provide channels of inspiration through which children may aspire.

— when they seize the shining luster of a creative moment and help children build on this exhilarating happiness.

— when they provide stimulation through the freshness of now materials*

— and when they ever seek to open, expand, and further relate the avenues of creative expression.

- 267 — 268

Time it is that there are inertnesses, hlookings, and frictions that tend to make creativity miss and tvhich are in themselves unfavor­ able to integrative learning in the elementary school» Conversely, however, the resilient teacher knows that the positive values of creative action do provide a salvaging potential for even negative situations. For such a creative person the statement "A good life is one that can convert obstacles into means” is an action-packed thought.

It Implies :

— that there is a chain reaction of positiveness which can be set off by one.. .a constructive one whose thoughts and deeds provoke others to raise their sights constructively, too.

— that example and precept can also serve as agents in sal­ vaging values from obstacles.

— that the exhilaration of creative struggle...the groiving of a new self dimension.. .is a means of saving self from damaging nega­ tiveness.

— that by relinquishing the grip on those ideas which have posed a hurdle and by creating an interest in new possibilities there is yet another way of converting a blocking obstacle into a building one.

— that the flexibility of resiliency and understanding can do more to bring about positive transformation than the rigidity of resistancy and resentment.

— and that a realistic and rational acceptance of problems often greatly reduces the seeming enormity of supposed obstacles. 269

Primarily, hotraver, elementary teachers seek those areas vihich ivill provide recurrence to richly creative opportunities for whole classrooms and schools of children ■whether these areas be in the form of children’s assemblies, class or school neiTspapers, individual or group letters, school festivals and plays or "whatever The accent in a stimulating classroom and a gro'wing school is on the positive and on the creative.

Possible Contributions to Childhood Education

The contributions of this study to childhood education seem to hinge on the need to help children find a positively creative vrorld, one that creatively reckons "with the knowledge that:

— to build-in happiness, schools must provide oppor-tunlties to let-out some of "the imprisoned glory" in children through vital experiences in all phases of educative living and learning.

--to provide tempting, enticing, and challenging fare schools must do more than organize the bare bones of facts into a scramiy frame-work called "curriculum"...a pre-conceived and pro-determined skeleton, for facts alone do not make schools...or children...or teachers. Listen to a dramatist scoff at the meagerness of bony facts Î

Facts? Bones, Colonel. The skeleton I’ve seen dangling in the School of Anatomy Is made of facts. But any one of the s'fcudents Makes the skeleton look like a perfect stranger. — Christopher Fry from: The Dark Is Light Enough 270

— to help a child come into his inheritance of happiness, the child must be given opportunities to involve himself fully, for as he internalizes with environment and process he also manifests this inner, creative exhilaration in positive external behavior. Since such action and behavior provide groivth for and insight into the Self, those give rise to the concomitant value of self-control, for only as a child is given opportunities whereby he can interact with the self and grow the self to new dimensions, does ho commence attaining sufficient at-ono-ness with self to gain control of it, and a great and mature society is one composed of a self-controlled population.

Kelley speaks of this needful aspect of society here: "Our society needs people who have had experience in self-control while they are young, so that they will have practice in exercising it when they are free from the teacher or parent*"

— to cue learning to what is Imoim about a child’s developmental and on-going readiness is a paramount classroom condition.

--to be sensitive to the child’s educational feeding schedule— liis capacity, his timing, his in-take, his assimilation cycle, his unique desires— is basic to good growing in the classroom.

--to whet the child’s interest by sparking his creative drives with little pushes of challenge, spontaneity, inspiration, glimpses of greatness, resiliency, availability, cooperation, and love takes

133 Kelley, op, cit., p. 69, 271 m r m t h and understanding on the part of the teacher.

— to give him a broader concept of living and learning in a creative world by exploring the possibilities of cross-grade and cross-age groupings takes desire and cooperation on the part of the entire staff.

— to make sure that creativity is not associated with just certain aspects of time and learning requires a rich and resourceful teacher or groups of teachers.

--to provide gro'iTth-provoking situations that ^vill involve children wholly and fully is a challenge for all teachers.

— to encourage each child to find for himself the "door in the wall”...a door loading to other doors and thence to yet multiple others is a major responsibility for all teachersj for it is through the doors of self-discovery loading ultimately to the fullest mani­ festation of person that creativity is most thrillingly realized.

Barkan says: "Each thing v i e create and everything v i e learn in creat­ ing it, becomes a part of us.”^^^

--to appreciate that creative learning contributes greatly to the developing uniqueness of children, for it recognizes that: "If a

TTvin does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hoars a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, hovrever measured or far away." — Henry David Thoreau.

l34 Barkan, op. cit., p. 81. 272

— to be sensitive to the knovfledge that if creativity contri­ butes to the uniqueness of self— and this it most surely does— it must also contribute to the harmonious groupness of selves— to clusters

of children with varying abilities, degrees, imd desires to create.

Only as a child learns to live cooperatively and harmoniously with others, as well as himself, does he become a valid and desirable member of society. It is through the creative challenges of the

school that the child strengthens the span and greatly projects the bridge of self to the continent of others. Of this out-going and

stretching nature of self, the philosopher wrote:

No man is an Island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the Continent, a pa it of the main; if a Clod be washed away by the Sea, Europe is the less, as ivell as if a Promontory wore, as well as if a Manor of thy friends or of thine own were; any man’s death diminishes me, because I am involved in Lüankind; and therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee. — John Donne from: The 17th Devotion

— to be sympathetic to the realization that coming to creative knowledge happens gradually and over a period of many years. It is not a forced learning, but a "becoming" learning--one vdth ever deep­ ening and growing perceptions. It is also a concomitant learning- one that takes place as faith and love encompass the way-farer on his life-long pilgrimage through iirorlds of living and learning. Of such travel, the young voyager speaks here: 273

Put learning in tçr way, then stand aside

To guide m y footsteps. But do not push—

¥ s y steps are small because my legs are short And there is muoh to see that you have seen But see no more— too bad I

■When I have traveled all the road through books Up hill and down, % head will overflow with so much knowing. Don't mice me go too fast to see and hear This lovely world. Let joy keep pace with growing. — Audrey M. Linaberry

— to recognize that the contributions which the expanding role of creativity makes in a child’s world are almost unfathomable, for creativity knows of no limits— it only knows of "world without end"... an open-ended world where growth is infinite and where challenge is ever present. In such an environment there can be positive, creative teaching and learning about a world that is constantly changing and growing— a world which provides a yet untold heaven, or, as the poet expressed it: "Ah, but a man’s reach should exceed his grasp, or what’s a heaven for?" — Robert Browning.

— to joyfully accept the challenge that it is a teacher’s role to help a child reach for his "heavens," and, if he is a wise teacher, he will know that "heaven is not reached in a single bound..."

He will let joy be in the climbing, he will give love and wisdom in guiding the long ascent, and he will be resilient to child in the long span of grovdng and becoming. Creative schools 7/ill seek such teachers, for as l&ams says: "...the kind of school will always depend 274

135 upon the kind of teacher in the classroom*”

— to know that it is not enough for children to exist or sur­ vive. Even Captain Cook recognized this condition long ago when he discovered a group of remote, primitive men. "They are contented to be naked," he TO'ote, "but ambitious to be fine." All men— big and

small— are ambitious to be fine, to be worthy, to gain stature, to be recognized, and it is the school’s role in the culture of today to help children grow closer to that creative aspiration— to help show them how to attain fineness through the refinement of rich experiencing and living. As the child grovm a finer dimension, as his clouds of glory become less swaddling and more svreeping, and as he as a person becomes more aware of his perceptual worth to self and society, so, too, will his inner glory commence to shine* Here it is that creativity rings the truest tone and sings the sweetest song, for it is the needful right of every child to shine and shine and to keep

right on growing and shining all through the wonderfulness of a creative life.

Creativity is a child’s world; it engulfs him with "why"; it taunts him vdth "try"; and it transforms him vdth "my"— Yftiy is the

slcy? Let me try I Let me try! Let me tryl and*..Hero, this is ny work I

Creativity is a shining world— it radiates from the povfor of a

light within...a "catching" that would spark a world-

135 Hughes Meams, Creative Youth, op* cit., p. 129* 275 mjr world, your world, and all the thrilling related worlds— to a limitless glory#

Creativity is to all men given, for in His infinite wisdom and grace the Giver knew that not one or some but that "Ev'ry little soul must shine, shine, shine."

LL.. 1 ^ - W ^ ~ H=fZ— d v - # L—«1—« L—« 1L J "Ms- ter Rab-bit, Ms-ter Rabbit, "Sur ears mighty long."

Bv 'ry lit- tle'Yes, dear Lord,iheyVe put on wrong I Bv'ry lit-tle'Yes,

soul must shine, diinae, shine,... Bv..’ry

s p— =— s ___ i y ' —% tr e/ lit-tle soul must shine,.,., shine, shinel


— 276 «» 277

Bird Age 6

(Wood, yarn, and paper) 278

Prehistoric Animal Age 10 (Glazed clay) 279

Space Travel Age 11 (l&tal and Plastor-of-Paris) 280

Brother and Sister Playing a Game (Glazed clay) Age 10 281

Robin Age 8

(Papior mâche) 282

Cowboy Ago 10 (Glazed clay) 285

Elephant Age 9 (Papier maohe) 284

# 3

ï - u î t r ■-'!,•

" ''kX, * J * #' « -%'v 0


Rabbit Age 7 (Papier mâche) 285

Rabbits Age 6

(Glazed clay) 286

P ' ‘f c ‘; '

i w r ; ,

Elephant Age 9

(Glazed clay) 287

V/oven Bug Ago 8 288

Hen on a Heat Ago 6

(Fired clay) 289

Brass Dish Age 11 290

'. j ^ - . ' '


i % #/i ;vi. m m map

-Papier-mache grouping Age 9 291

A fourth grade shelve as 6 arranged by children as part of a travel and transporta­ tion unit incor­ porated a favorite ;

! sea chantey, an old ship’s lantern, and a model boat. mi5-tre 292

Mouao, Rabbit, and Dog Age 7

(Glazed clay) 293

Cut Paper Group Age 9 294

' ' ' ' \ i,' V'

Game board Age 11

(Wood) 295

a a s m

Camel, Eider, and. Bag Age 9

(Glazed clay) 296

Pony Age 9

(Papier macho, yarn, leather) BIBLIOSRAPHY

- 297 - 298


A. Books

Marioan COTmoil on Education, Commission on Teacher Education, Teachers For Our Times. Washington, D. G.: American Council on Education, 1944. 178 pp.

Andre^Ts, Frances M. and Leader, Joseph A. Guiding Junior-High Pupils in 11x5ic. New York: Prontice-Hall, Inc., 1953. 372 pp.

Applegate, Mauree, Helping Cliildren Write. Scranton, Pennsylvania: International Textbook Company, 1949. 173 pp.

Aflhley-Montagu, F., On Being Human. New York: Henry Schuman, 1950, 125 pp.

Barkan, Manuel, A Foundation For Art Education. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1955. 235 pp.

Baruch, Dorothy, Parents and Children Go To School. Chicago; Scott Porsman, 1939. 504 pp.

Burr, James, Harding, Lowry Vf., and Jacobs, Leland B., Student Teaching in the Elementary School. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1950. 440 pp.

Cantril, Hadley, The "Yfliy” of Nan's Experience. New York; The î&omillan Company, 1950. 198 pp.

Cole, Natalie Robinson, The Arts In The Classroom. Nevr York; The John Day Company, 1940. 137 pp.

De Lima, Agnes, The Little Red School House. New York; The i&.cmillan Company, 1944. 355 pp.

Dewey, John, Art As Experience. New York; Mnton, Balch & Company, 1934. 355 pp.

Dewey, John, Democracy and Education. New York; The Macmillan Company, 1924. 434 pp.

Ghiselin, Brewster, The Creative Process; A Symposium. Berkeley and Los Angeles ; University of California Press, 1952. 259 pp.

Hart, Joseph, Mind In Transition. New York; Covioi, Friede, and Compsmy, 1938. 413 pp. 299

Hopkins, L» Thomas, The Emerfiirtp; Self. Hew York: Harper & Brothers, 1954, 366 pp.

Jersild, Arthur T., In Search of Self. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1952, 141 pp,

Kelley, Earl C., Education For lAlhat Is Real, Now York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1947, 114 pp.

Lee, J, IMrray and Lee, Dorris î&y. The Child and His Curriculum, Now York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1950, 710 pp.

Lowenfeld, Viktor, Creative and Ifental Growth. New York: The Nacmillan Company, 1952. 408 pp,

Moams, Hughes, The Creative Adult, New York: Doubleday, Doran and Company, 1940, 300 pp,

Meams, Hughes, Creative Power. Garden City, Now York: Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc., 1925, 234 pp,

Idirphy, Gardner, Personality. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1947, 999 pp.

Potter, Charles Francis, Creative Personality. New York: Funk and Wagnalls Company, 1950. 310 pp,

Ragan, William B. and Steadier, C. B., Modem Elementary Curriculum. New York: The Dryden Press, 1953. 570 pp.

Read, Herbert, Education Through Art. New York: Pantheon Books, 1945, 320 pp.

Snygg, Donald and Combs, Arthur W., Individual Behavior. New York: Harper Brothers, 1949. 386 pp.

B» Periodicals

Collier, John, "United States Indian Administration As a Laboratory of Ethnic Relations," Social Research, 12:265-303, Sept., 1945*

Falk, Ethel î&bie, "Letters To Enrich Children's Experience," Elementary English Review, 18:77-82, lüaroh, 1941.

Harding, Lowry W., "Twenty-One Varieties of Educational Leadership," Educational Leadership, 6:299-302, Febmary, 1949, 300

ICilpatrich, ¥fî.lliam H., "Creative Teaching," Educational leadership, 138-139, 167, Dec., 1952.

Strickland, Ruth G., "Creative Activities in the Language Arts in the Elementary School," Elementary English, 32:147-149, March, 1955.

Zirbes, Laura, "Child Development Through Art Education," Western Arts Association Bulletin, 36:7-10, Nov., 1951.

Zirbes, Laura, "Children Reed Experiences," Childhood Education, 25:51, October, 1948.

Zirbes, Laura, "Creative Experience in the Education of Children," Western Arts Association Bulletin, 36:6-13, November, 1952»

C. Publications of Learned Organizations

Association for Childhood Education, Art For Children's Growing. Washington, D. C .: Association for Childhood Education Inter­ national, 1955. 48 pp,

Barkan, Manuel and Mooney, Ross L., editors. The Conference On Creativity: A Report to the Rockefeller Foundation. Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University, 1953. 166 pp.

D. Newspaper

News item in the Norman (Oklahoma) Transcript, June 23, 1955,

E. Comments

Jacobs, Leland, comment made during an informal conversation, summer, 1 949. AUTOBIOGRAPHY

I, Lorrene Lcrye Ort, vra.s b o m in Sedalia, Missouri, April 17,

1918* I received my secondary education in the public schools of

Ifobridge, South Dakota. % undergraduate education was obtained at

Oberlin College, Cberlin, Ohio, from ■which I received the bachelor of school music degree in 1939. From 1939 to 1942 and again from

1945 to 1951 I taught in the public schools of Napoleon, Ohio*

From The Ohio State University, I received the degree Master of Arts in 1950, From 1951 until 1953 I •was director of the Feloti Ifemorial

Teacher Training School in Pago Pago, Merican Samoa. In July, 1953,

I re-entered The Ohio State University to continue graduate study*

During the academic year 1954-1955 I was an instructor in the

University School of The Ohio State University were I "was the elemen­ tary arts coordinator*

- 301 -

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